Rural Energy and Environment Agency

Beijing, China

Rural Energy and Environment Agency

Beijing, China
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Hua L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu J.,Pennsylvania State University | Zhai L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xi B.,Rural Energy and Environment Agency | And 5 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2017

Phosphorus (P) runoff from arable land is a major cause for eutrophication of many surface waters. However, relatively little research has been conducted on managing P in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production systems, where farming practices differ from those of upland cropping systems due to water ponding on the soil surface (field ponding water; FPW). Because FPW is a direct source of surface runoff, identifying the main source of P and the critical period of high P concentrations in the FPW provide important insights to mitigating P runoff losses. In this study, field monitoring and laboratory incubation experiments were combined to evaluate how soil P content and conventional P fertilizer application affected FPW P concentrations in rice–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation systems of five Chinese rice producing regions. All soils had Olsen-P concentrations (10.1–20.5 mg kg−1) well below the critical levels (30–172 mg kg−1) for promoted risks of P loss. However, conventional P application rate significantly elevated FPW P concentrations compared to no P application, and P fertilizer contributed 47–92% of total P (TP) and 59–97% of total dissolved P (TDP) in the FPW. Temporarily, both TP and TDP concentrations peaked one day after P application (0.15–8.90 mg TP L−1 and 0.16–4.49 mg TDP L−1), then decreased rapidly and stabilized five days later. We conclude that fertilizer is the major source of P loss in Chinese rice production systems, and that P fertilizer rate should be optimized to reduce P concentrations in the effluent water in the first week following P application. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Fang F.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wang F.,Rural Energy and Environment Agency | Shi Z.,Rural Energy and Environment Agency | Zheng X.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2017

China is a vast agricultural country which produces a large amount of crop straw. If the crop straw was used irrationally, the airborne pollutant concentration would increase, and the soil moisture and organic matter content would reduce. It does harm to ecological environment. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is the political, economic and cultural center of China and plays an essential role in the development of social economy of China. There are severe environment problems occurring in this region such as smog happening frequently. Burning of crop straw is concerned to be one of the main reasons for the smog in this region. The research of crop straw resource was carried out in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region aimed to promote the comprehensive utilization of crop straw. The production and utilization of crop straw resources and their application potential were evaluated and analyzed. Furthermore, the emission characteristics of gaseous pollutants generated from open burning of major crop straw in the region were quantitatively estimated that. The results showed that the theoretical amount of crop straw in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was 5.4×107 t in 2012, and the main crop species were corn and wheat straw. Crop straw resources could be used as high quality fertilizer with high contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), and the amounts were 3.7×104, 7.4×104 and 1.0×106 t for N, P and K respectively. Straw returned to field was the major utilization method for crop residue in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. However, the returned amounts were accounting for 67.7%, 27.3% and 61.2% of the total crop residue amounts in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei respectively. Interestingly, the returned amount of wheat residue in Beijing was accounting for 94.5%, which was higher than Hebei (78.5%) and Tianjin (47.1%). The amount of wasted and burned straw accounted for 1.7%, 0.5% and 1.4% respectively in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. The nutrient resource such as N, P and K of crop straw returned to soil in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was 2.4×104, 1.9×104 and 6.1×105 t, respectively. However, there was still a large amount of crop straw abandoned or open burned. Wheat and maize residue were the major crop residue open burned in the region, which accounted for 93.0% of the total straw amount open burned. In Hebei, 14.9% and 31.8% of total straw resource were abandoned and open burned respectively, while 8.2% and 5.9% in Tianjin, and 0.6% and 0.8% in Beijing. According to the statistical data, 8.7×104 t CO, 9.6×105 t CO2, 2.5×102 t NO2, 5.5×102 t NO and 8.1×102 t NOx from open burning of wheat and maize straw were emitted to atmosphere in Hebei Province, which were as three times as that in Tianjin City. Due to farmers' high cognitive level and policy of government, a very small amount of straw was open burned in Beijing, and only 1.2×103 t CO, 1.3×104 t CO2, 4.3 t NO2, 8.5 t NO and 12.8 t NOx were emitted to atmosphere due to open burning of straw. The total amounts of pollutants emitted from wheat and maize straw open burning were 1.0×106 and 4.8×105 t, respectively. According to regional straw resource endowment and utilization potential, county (township) should be the unit to develop the "5 kinds of material" technology strategy based on the local conditions. What's more, system supporting policy measures should be formulated and taken based on straw returning mechanism, use mechanism out of the field, organization and management mechanism, and technology research and development mechanism. © 2017, Editorial Department of the Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Wen X.,Anhui Normal University | Xi Y.,Anhui Normal University | Zhang G.,Anhui Normal University | Zhang G.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2016

The relationship between the co-occurrence of cryptic zooplankton species and environmental variables was studied in a lake in China. Lake Jinghu was sampled for zooplankton and water chemistry at 3 or 4-day intervals over a year, and samples of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were obtained at 8-day intervals and clonally cultured in the laboratory. We found that B. calyciflorus occurred in winter and spring, and was a species complex composed of cryptic species BcI and BcII based on mtDNA COI sequence divergence and the GMYC model analyses. Both cryptic species cohabited in Lake Jinghu when they were present. The densities of BcI and BcII were not correlated, indicating that there might be no strong competition between them. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and generalized linear models (GLM), only BcII density was impacted by chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration (of the lake water filtered through a 25 μm net) alone with a time lag, and the interaction of temperature and Chl a concentration without a time lag. Our results suggest that a distinct response to Chl a reduces the intensity of competition between cryptic B. calyciflorus species and promotes their coexistence in Lake Jinghu over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Zhang Y.,Tsinghua University | Chen L.,Tsinghua University | Chen L.,Yangtze University | Sun R.,Peking University | And 4 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Under the increasing pressure of human activities, Hangzhou Bay has become one of the most seriously polluted waters along China’s coast. Considering the excessive inorganic nitrogen detected in the bay, in this study, the impact of an effluent from a coastal industrial park on ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) of the receiving area was interpreted for the first time by molecular technologies. Revealed by real-time PCR, the ratio of archaeal amoA/bacterial amoA ranged from 5.68 × 10−6 to 4.79 × 10−5 in the activated sludge from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 0.54–3.44 in the sediments from the effluent receiving coastal area. Analyzed by clone and pyrosequencing libraries, genus Nitrosomonas was the predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), but no ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was abundant enough for sequencing in the activated sludge from the WWTPs; genus Nitrosomonas and Nitrosopumilus were the dominant AOB and AOA, respectively, in the coastal sediments. The different abundance of AOA but similar structure of AOB between the WWTPs and nearby coastal area probably indicated an anthropogenic impact on the microbial ecology in Hangzhou Bay. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Guan D.,China Agricultural University | Guan D.,Rural Energy and Environment Agency | Zhang Y.,China Agricultural University | Al-Kaisi M.M.,Iowa State University | And 3 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2015

Water shortage has limited the agricultural sustainable development of North China Plain (NCP), where winter wheat (. Triticum aestivum L.) is the major irrigated crop that consumes 60-80% of available deep groundwater for agriculture production, leading to the significant decline in groundwater resource. The protection of water resources is important for the sustainable development of agriculture in NCP. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plow-tillage (PT), rotary-tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT) on root growth, water consumption characteristics, grain yield, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) under rain-fed condition conducted in a field with 20-year of rotary tillage history. Findings of this research show that plow-tillage (PT) and rotary-tillage (RT) decreased the soil bulk density in the 0-20. cm soil depth and the penetration resistance in the 0-30. cm soil depth. During two growth seasons, PT had greater root weight density (RWD), root length density (RLD) and root surface density (RSD) than those under NT across the 0-110. cm soil profile at the tillering stage and in the 0-40. cm soil profile at the flowering stage, respectively. However, RWD, RLD and RSD of PT were lower than NT at 0-10. cm soil depth and greater at 10-20. cm soil depth at the ripening stage. Similar trends were observed under RT compared with NT. Soil water content (SWC) under PT and RT were lower compared with NT from tillering to flowering stage across 0-110. cm, but higher than under NT in 0-20. cm soil profile at ripening stage. Evapotranspiration (ET) values under PT were higher than under NT from sowing to flowering stages, but significantly lower at the ripening stage. Moreover, tillage practices had no notable influences on pre-planting soil water storage and total ET under rain-fed condition during two growing season, but PT significantly enhanced grain yield through higher spike number and grain weight compared with NT, which led to higher WUE under PT. The findings of this study show that PT practice can reduce soil bulk density and penetration resistance at the tillage zone, which can lead to greater RWD, RLD and RSD and greater ET from tillering to flowering stage. This can increase plant population and cause greater WUE and grain yield under rain-fed condition. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Yin S.,China University of Geosciences | Wu W.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research | Wu W.,Engineering Technique Research Center for the Exploration and Utilization of Non Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency | Liu H.,Engineering Technique Research Center for the Exploration and Utilization of Non Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency | Bao Z.,Rural Energy and Environment Agency
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2016

Reclaimed water reuse is an effective method of alleviating agricultural water shortages, which entails some potential risks for groundwater. In this study, the impacts of wastewater reuse on groundwater were evaluated by combination of groundwater chemistry and isotopes. In reclaimed water infiltration, salt composition was affected not only by ion exchange and dissolution equilibrium but also by carbonic acid equilibrium. The dissolution and precipitation of calcites and dolomites as well as exchange and adsorption between Na and Ca/Mg were simultaneous, leading to significant changes in Na/Cl, (Ca + Mg)/Cl, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-Ca-HCO3-Cl type, and groundwater recharged by reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Na-HCO3 types. The hydrogeological conditions characterized by sand-clay alternation led to both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies > 95%, and there was no significant difference in those contents between aquifers recharged by precipitation and reclamation water. > 40 years of long-term infiltration and recharge from sewage and reclaimed water did not cause groundwater contamination by nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. These results indicate that characteristics of the study area, such as the lithologic structure with sand-clay alternation, relatively thick clay layer, and relatively large groundwater depth have a significant role in the high vulnerability. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Engineering Technique Research Center for the Exploration and Utilization of Non Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency, Rural Energy and Environment Agency, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research and China University of Geosciences
Type: | Journal: Journal of contaminant hydrology | Year: 2016

Reclaimed water reuse is an effective method of alleviating agricultural water shortages, which entails some potential risks for groundwater. In this study, the impacts of wastewater reuse on groundwater were evaluated by combination of groundwater chemistry and isotopes. In reclaimed water infiltration, salt composition was affected not only by ion exchange and dissolution equilibrium but also by carbonic acid equilibrium. The dissolution and precipitation of calcites and dolomites as well as exchange and adsorption between Na and Ca/Mg were simultaneous, leading to significant changes in Na/Cl, (Ca+Mg)/Cl, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-Ca-HCO


PubMed | Water Resources University, Engineering Technique Research Center for the Exploration and Utilization of Non Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency, Rural Energy and Environment Agency, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research and China University of Geosciences
Type: | Journal: Journal of contaminant hydrology | Year: 2015

Seen as a solution to water shortages, wastewater reuse for crop irrigation does however poses a risk owing to the potential release of organic contaminants into soil and water. The frequency of detection (FOD), concentration, and migration of nonylphenol (NP) isomers in reclaimed water (FODRW), surface water (FODSW), and groundwater (FODGW) were investigated in a long-term wastewater irrigation area in Beijing. The FODRW, FODSW and FODGW of any or all of 12 NP isomers were 66.7% to 100%, 76.9% to 100% and 13.3% to 60%, respectively. The mean (standard deviation) NP concentrations of the reclaimed water, surface water, and groundwater (NPRW, NPSW, NPGW, repectively) were 469.473.4 ng L(-1), 694.6248.7 ng(-1) and 244.4230.8 ng(-1), respectively. The existence of external pollution sources during water transmission and distribution resulted in NPSW exceeding NPRW. NP distribution in groundwater was related to the duration and quantity of wastewater irrigation, the sources of aquifer recharge, and was seen to decrease with increasing aquifer depth. Higher riverside infiltration rate nearby leads to higher FODGW values. The migration rate of NP isomers was classified as high, moderate or low.


Bian J.,Nankai University | Bai H.,Nankai University | Li W.,Nankai University | Yin J.,Rural Energy and Environment Agency | Xu H.,Nankai University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

The number of waste mobile phones (WMPs) has increased dramatically in recent years. A complete recycling network is being developed in China, and the WMP recycling process will need to be industrialized. WMPs are valuable, but the potential environmental pressures resulting from recycling processes are currently not well understood. Three recycling scenarios were constructed to represent different current WMP treatment methods, and life-cycle assessments of the environmental impacts of the scenarios were performed. All three scenarios offered environmental benefits, but the scale of the benefits decreased in the order scenario 3 > scenario 2 > scenario 1. Recycling printed circuit boards and metals in the lithium batteries, possible because of the modularization process, was most environmentally beneficial. Environmental impacts were divided into 10 subcategories: recycling decreased the impacts of acidification and nitrification, carcinogenic effects, climate change, ecotoxicity, fossil fuel use, inorganic respiratory effects, and mineral effects more than the impacts of the other categories. The industrialization of WMP recycling should be based on a "manual disassembly plus modularized recycling" model (scenario 3). These results will allow decision-makers involved in the disposal of WMPs to improve the efficiency with which resources (including energy) can be recycled from WMPs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Li W.,Nankai University | Bai H.,Nankai University | Yin J.,Nankai University | Yin J.,Rural Energy and Environment Agency | Xu H.,Nankai University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

The sharp increase in car ownership that has occurred in China in recent years has led to a rapid increase in the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Life cycle analysis, in terms of the environmental impact and the ability to recycle and recover resources, was performed on a whole car in this study. Three scenarios were used to represent different technological levels of recycling ELVs. The major environmental impact of the ELV recycling system in China was found to be the human toxicity potential. It was found that recycling automotive shredder residues (ASRs), glass, plastic, wire harnesses, and various metal components during ELV recycling would decrease the amounts of raw materials and energy consumed in China. Moreover, it was found that decreasing the amount of energy consumed by recycling materials and remanufacturing engines would decrease pollutant emissions in China. The analysis showed that improving the engine remanufacturing, the recovery of nonmetallic materials and recycling ASRs would effectively improve the recovery of resources and increase the environmental benefits. Measures are proposed that the ELV recycling industry in China should take to decrease the environmental impact. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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