Bochum, Germany
Bochum, Germany

Ruhr University Bochum , located on the southern hills of central Ruhr area Bochum, was founded in 1962 as the first new public university in Germany since World War II. Instruction began in 1965.The Ruhr-University Bochum is one of the largest universities in Germany and part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the most important German research funding organization.The RUB has been very successful in the Excellence Initiative by the German Federal and State Governments , a competition among Germany's most prestigious universities. It was one of the few institutions left competing for the title of an "elite university", but did not succeed in the last round of the competition. There are currently nine universities in Germany that hold this title.The University of Bochum was one of the first universities in Germany to introduce international Bachelor and Master degrees, which replaced the traditional German Diplom and Magister. Except for a few special cases this process has been completed and all degrees been converted. Today, the university offers a total of 150 different study programs from all fields.Ruhr University is financed and administered by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Currently, 38,675 students are enrolled, and the university employs over 5,500 staff , making it one of the ten largest universities in Germany . Kurt Biedenkopf, who later became prime minister of the state of Saxony, was director of the university from 1967 to 1969.Unlike a number of traditional universities, the buildings of Ruhr University are all centralized on one campus, except for the Faculty of Medicine, which also includes some hospitals in Bochum and the Ruhr area. Although the centralized university campus utilizes 1960s architecture almost exclusively, mainly consisting of 14 almost identical high-rise buildings, it is located at the edge of a green belt on high ground adjacent to the Ruhr valley. Wikipedia.

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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: DS-05-2015 | Award Amount: 7.47M | Year: 2016

Against the background of the regulation 2014/910/EU on electronic identification (eID) and trusted services for electronic transactions in the internal market (eIDAS), the FutureTrust project aims at supporting the practical implementation of the regulation in Europe and beyond. For this purpose the FutureTrust project will address the need for globally interoperable solutions through 1) basic research with respect to the foundations of trust and trustworthiness, with the aim of developing new, widely compatible trust models or improving existing models, 2) actively driving the standardisation process, and 3) providing Open Source software components and trustworthy services as a functional base for fast adoption of standards and solutions. FutureTrust will demonstrate positive business cases for the reliance on electronic signatures, sealing services, and long-term authenticity of data and documents, all with a focus on accountability, transparency and usability. For a subset of use cases, carefully selected for relevance and visibility, the FutureTrust consortium will devise real world pilot applications for the public and private sector with a focus on legally significant global electronic transactions in between EU member states and with non-EU countries. The FutureTrust project will in particular develop a comprehensive Open Source validation service as well as a scalable preservation service for electronic signatures and will provide components for the eID-based application for qualified certificates across borders, and for the trustworthy creation of remote signatures and seals in a mobile environment. Furthermore, the FutureTrust project will extend and generalize existing trust management concepts to build a Global Trust List, which allows to maintain trust anchors and metadata for trust services and eID related services around the globe.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-17-2015 | Award Amount: 9.63M | Year: 2016

The share of renewable energy is growing rapidly driven by the objective to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of electric power which can be supplied to the grid depends on the time of the day and weather conditions. A conventional fleet of thermal power plants is required to compensate for these fluctuations before large scale energy storage technologies will be mature and economically viable. All power market projections expect this to be the case for the next 50 years at least. For a strong expansion of renewables, this fleet has to operate flexibly at competitive cost. Current power plants cannot fill this role immediately without impeding their efficiency and engine lifetime through increased wear and damage induced by the higher number of (shorter) operating/loading cycles. New technologies need to be introduced to balance demand peaks with renewable output fluctuations at minimal fuel consumption and emissions without negative effects on cycling operation. The FLEXTURBINE partners have developed a medium to long term technology roadmap addressing future and existing power plants. The FLEXTURBINE project presented hereafter is the first step in such technology roadmap and consists of: (1) new solutions for extended operating ranges to predict and control flutter, (2) improved sealing and bearing designs to increase turbine lifetime and efficiency by reducing degradation/damages, and (3) an improved lifecycle management through better control and prediction of critical parts to improve competitive costs by more flexible service intervals and planned downtime, and by reducing unplanned outages. In all areas, individual technologies will be developed from TRL 3 to TRL 4-6. FLEXTURBINE brings together the main European turbine manufacturers, renowned research institutes and universities. It involves plant and transmission system operators to include user feedback and to prepare the take-up of the FLEXTURBINE technologies in power plants world-wide.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-29-2016 | Award Amount: 4.70M | Year: 2016

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), more specifically, vulnerable plaque rupture, remains the major cause of death for people at middle age. The CVENT consortium will revolutionize screening, diagnosis and monitoring of CVD by means of a compact photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system for vulnerable plaque imaging. In the carotid arteries feeding the brain, vulnerable plaque rupture initiates cerebrovascular ischemic attacks. The state-of-the-art decision-making approach for a high-risk surgical intervention to avoid plaque rupture is based on stenosis severity alone, measured with ultrasound (US) imaging. However, this does not distinguish between vulnerable (rupture-prone) and stable (harmless) plaques, leading to severe overtreatment. Consequently, there is a worldwide unmet and urgent clinical need for functional information to enable in-depth diagnosis of carotid plaque vulnerability, avoiding cardiovascular events (CVENT) and reducing overtreatment risk. The objective of the CVENT consortium is the development of a portable multimodal and multiwavelength PAI system with a 3 cm imaging depth, for diagnosis and monitoring of carotid plaque vulnerability. The combination of high optical contrast of PAI and the high resolution of US will be used to identify plaque vulnerability markers, typically lipid pools and intra-plaque haemorrhage. Improved diagnosis of carotid plaque vulnerability will lead to a significant reduction in CVD-related disability and mortality. Simultaneously, by stratifying patients into high and low risk groups, overtreatment is reduced, leading to better allocation of healthcare funds. The CVENT consortium unites leading research groups, clinicians, industrial partners, and their expertise on R&D and a focus on exploitation, creating a breakthrough in carotid plaque vulnerability diagnosis. CVENT will bring together leading experts in the field of CVD, functional US imaging and PAI, introducing clinically applied PAI into the vascular medical arena.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-04-2015 | Award Amount: 4.73M | Year: 2016

Tulipp will develop a reference platform that defines implementation rules and interfaces to tackle power consumption issues while delivering high, efficient and guaranteed computing performance for image processing applications. Using this reference platform will enable designers to develop an elementary board at a reduced cost to meet typical embedded systems requirements: Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) requirements. Moreover, for less constrained systems which performance requirements cannot be fulfilled by one instance of the platform, the reference platform will also be scalable so that the resulting boards be chained for higher processing power. To demonstrate its effectiveness, an instance of the reference platform will be developed during the project. The instance of the reference platform will be use-case driven and split between the implementation of: a reference HW architecture - a scalable low-power board; a low-power operating system and image processing libraries; an energy aware tool chain. It will lead to three proof-of-concept demonstrators across different application domains: real-time and low-power medical image processing product prototype of surgical X-ray system (Mobile c-arm); embedded image processing systems within Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV); automotive real time embedded systems for driver assistance. The Tulipp approach will also give rise to advances in system integration, processing innovation and idle power management. Tulipp will closely work with standardisation organisations to propose new standards derived from its reference platform to the industry. Its consortium includes the necessary and sufficient number of partners covering all the required inter-disciplinary expertise to successfully carry out the required experimentation, integration and demonstration activities as well as to assure a manageable project structure and minimise the risks to achieve the ambitious goals of the project.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-15-2015 | Award Amount: 6.70M | Year: 2016

Spinal cord injury is a severe and devastating neurological disorder that leaves patients with permanent paralysis of the body. No treatment is available today to regenerate interrupted nerve fibers and repair the damaged spinal cord. The incidence of spinal cord injury is about newly injured 10000 people per year in the EU, and due to an almost normal life expectancy more than 200000 patients are living with a spinal cord injury in the EU. The impact on the individual quality of life is high, and social costs are enormous. Recent preclinical research in animal models succeeded to greatly enhance axonal sprouting, fiber regeneration and neuroplasticity following injuries of brain and spinal cord. These results warrant translation now to patients suffering from acute spinal cord injury. A previous phase I clinical study using intrathecal application of a nerve fiber growth promoting antibody against the growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A has shown in patients with complete spinal cord injury that this treatment is safe and well tolerated. The present study will enroll patients with various degrees of complete to incomplete acute spinal cord injury for a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of this antibody therapy to improve motor outcome and quality of life of tetraplegic patients. The enrollment of patients with different degrees of spinal cord injury is considered essential to reveal drug activity and eventual proof of concept in a broad patient population. Advancements in clinical trial design, improved prediction algorithms of clinical outcomes and development of surrogate markers (in cerebro-spinal fluid/serum and by neuroimaging) will allow for scrutinizing the effectiveness of this novel treatment in an unprecedented way. A positive outcome of this trial will represent a breakthrough for the future therapy of spinal cord injuries and beyond (traumatic brain injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis).


Shukla P.K.,Ruhr University Bochum | Eliasson B.,Ruhr University Bochum
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

The current understanding of some important nonlinear collective processes in quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of quantum plasmas, model equations (e.g., the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equations) are presented that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in tunneling of electrons and the electron degeneracy pressure. Since electrons are Fermions (spin-1/2 quantum particles), there also appears an electron spin current and a spin force acting on electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The quantum effects produce new aspects of electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) waves in a quantum plasma that are summarized in here. Furthermore, nonlinear features of ES ion waves and electron plasma oscillations are discussed, as well as the trapping of intense EM waves in quantum electron-density cavities. Specifically, simulation studies of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger and Poisson equations reveal the formation and dynamics of localized ES structures at nanoscales in a quantum plasma. The effect of an external magnetic field on the plasma wave spectra and develop quantum magnetohydrodynamic equations are also discussed. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the cores of white dwarf stars and giant planets), as well as in plasma-assisted nanotechnology (e.g., quantum diodes, quantum free-electron lasers, nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, metallic nanostructures, thin metal films, semiconductor quantum wells, and quantum dots, etc.), and in the next generation of intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments relevant for fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion schemes. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Betard A.,Ruhr University Bochum | Fischer R.A.,Ruhr University Bochum
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

A systematic and comprehensive treatment of metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films is presented and the existing collection of processing methods from various perspectives are rationaized. A method developed by H. Kitagawa, R. Makiura, and co-workers relies on MOF layers made in a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) apparatus that are transferred one after another onto a silicon substrate with intermediate rinsing steps. Carbonell et al. produced arrays of HKUST-1 single crystals, in which the substrates were homogeneously covered with various SAMs. Sanchez, Serre, and co-workers prepared well-defined MOF particles and transfer them onto a surface by dip coating. Surface modifications of MOF single crystals were pioneered by Gadzikwa et al., who were inspired by postsynthetic modification strategies. A reactive group was incorporated into the ligand and protected so as to allow synthesis of MOF single crystals.


Steinbach I.,Ruhr University Bochum
Annual Review of Materials Research | Year: 2013

This review presents a phase-field model that is generally applicable to homogeneous and heterogeneous systems at the mesoscopic scale. Reviewed first are general aspects about first- and second-order phase transitions that need to be considered to understand the theoretical background of a phase field. The mesoscopic model equations are defined by a coarse-graining procedure from a microscopic model in the continuum limit on the atomic scale. Special emphasis is given to the question of how to separate the interface and bulk contributions to the generalized thermodynamic functional, which forms the basis of all phase-field models. Numerical aspects of the discretization are discussed at the lower scale of applicability. The model is applied to spinodal decomposition and ripening in Ag-Cu with realistic thermodynamic and kinetic data from a database. © Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Kramer U.,Ruhr University Bochum
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2010

During the history of life on Earth, tectonic and climatic change repeatedly generated large territories that were virtually devoid of life and exhibited harsh environmental conditions. The ability of a few specialist pioneer plants to colonize such hostile environments was thus of paramount ecological importance for the continuous maintenance of primary production over time. Yet, we know very little about how extreme traits evolve and function in plants. Recent breakthroughs have given first insights into the molecular basis underlying the complex extreme model trait of metal hyperaccumulation and associated metal hypertolerance. This review gives an introduction into the hyperaccumulator research field and its history; provides an overview of hyperaccumulator germplasm; describes the state of the art of our understanding of the physiological, molecular, and genetic basis underlying metal hyperaccumulation and its evolution; and highlights future research needs and opportunities. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-STG | Phase: ERC-2016-STG | Award Amount: 1.48M | Year: 2017

Biological or molecular catalysts built from Earth-abundant elements are envisioned as economically viable alternatives to the scarce noble metals that are currently used in renewable energy conversion. However, their fragility and O2 sensitivity have been obstacles to their adoption in industry. We have recently proposed O2 quenching matrices for protecting intrinsically O2-sensitive catalysts for use in anodic (oxidative) processes. We have demonstrated that even hydrogenases, the highly sensitive metalloenzymes that oxidize H2, can be used under the harsh conditions encountered in operating fuel cells. However, attempts to reverse the concept for the protection of cathodic (reductive) processes, such as H2 evolution, have been unsuccessful so far. In this case, the electrode generates the reducing agents in the form of electrons, which are needed for both H2 generation and reductive O2 quenching. The competition between the two reactions results in insufficient protection from O2 and deactivation of the catalyst. The objective is to design an alternative electron pathway that relies on H2 as a charge carrier to efficiently shuttle the reductive force to the matrix boundaries and quench the incoming O2. We will develop novel electron mediators with dual functionalities to enable the reversible H2/H\ interconversion and to achieve the complete reduction of O2 to water. We will focus on organic systems, as well as metal complexes based on Earth-abundant elements with tunable ligand spheres, to adjust their redox potentials for the desired direction of the electron flow and toward fast O2 reduction kinetics. The synthetic efforts will be supported by electrochemical modelling to predict the required properties of the redox matrix for efficient protection. After establishing the protection principle, we will demonstrate its practical use for implementing sensitive bio-catalysts for electrochemical H2 evolution under conditions relevant to energy conversion processes.

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