PubMed | Covance, Rue Of Linstitut 89, TNO and Chelatec SAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied toxicology : JAT | Year: 2015
Pandemic-influenza vaccines containing split-inactivated-virus antigen have been formulated with the immunostimulatory Adjuvant System AS03 to enhance the antigen immunogenicity and reduce antigen content per dose. AS03 is an oil-in-water emulsion containing -tocopherol, squalene and polysorbate 80. To support the clinical development of AS03-adjuvanted pandemic-influenza vaccines, the local and systemic toxicity of test articles containing split-influenza A(H5N1) and/or AS03 were evaluated after 3-4 intramuscular (i.m.) injections in rabbits. Treatment-related effects were restricted to mild inflammatory responses and were induced primarily by the test articles containing AS03. The injection-site inflammation was mild at 3 days, and minimal at 4 weeks after the last injection; and was reflected by signs of activation in the draining lymph nodes and by systemic effects in the blood including a transient increase of neutrophils. In addition, a study in mice explored the biodistribution of A(H5N1) vaccines or AS03 through radiolabelling the antigen or constituents of AS03 prior to injection. In this evaluation, 57-73% of AS03s principal constituents had cleared from the injection site 3 days after injection, and their different clearance kinetics were suggestive of AS03s dissociation. All these AS03 constituents entered into the draining lymph nodes within 30 min after injection. In conclusion, the administration of repeated doses of the H5N1/AS03 vaccine was well tolerated in the rabbit, and was primarily associated with transient mild inflammation at the injection site and draining lymph nodes. The biodistribution kinetics of AS03 constituents in the mouse were consistent with AS03 inducing this pattern of inflammation.
PubMed | Structural Biology Research Center, PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative MVI, Rue Of Linstitut 89, Ghent University and U.S. Army
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016
The malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S/AS01 (GSK Vaccines) induces high IgG concentration against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum. In human vaccine recipients circulating anti-CSP antibody concentrations are associated with protection against infection but appear not to be the correlate of protection. However, in a humanized mouse model of malaria infection prophylactic administration of a human monoclonal antibody (MAL1C), derived from a RTS,S/AS01-immunized volunteer, directed against the CSP repeat region, conveyed full protection in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that antibodies alone are able to prevent P. falciparum infection when present in sufficiently high concentrations. A competition ELISA was developed to measure the presence of MAL1C-like antibodies in polyclonal sera from RTS,S/AS01 vaccine recipients and study their possible contribution to protection against infection.MAL1C-like antibodies present in polyclonal vaccine-induced sera were evaluated for their ability to compete with biotinylated monoclonal antibody MAL1C for binding sites on the capture antigen consisting of the recombinant protein encompassing 32 NANP repeats of CSP (R32LR). Serum samples were taken at different time points from participants in two RTS,S/AS01vaccine studies (NCT01366534 and NCT01857869). Vaccine-induced protection status of the study participants was determined based on the outcome of experimental challenge with infected mosquito bites after vaccination. Optimal conditions were established to reliably detect MAL1C-like antibodies in polyclonal sera. Polyclonal anti-CSP antibodies and MAL1C-like antibody content were measured in 276 serum samples from RTS,S/AS01 vaccine recipients using the standard ELISA and MAL-1C competition ELISA, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between the results from these assays. However, no correlation was found between the results of either assay and protection against infection.The competition ELISA to measure MAL1C-like antibodies in polyclonal sera from RTS,S/AS01 vaccine recipients was robust and reliable but did not reveal the elusive correlate of protection.
PubMed | Rue Of Linstitut 89
Type: | Journal: BMC immunology | Year: 2015
Requisites for an efficacious tuberculosis (TB) vaccine are a minimal genomic diversity among infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains for the selected antigen, and the capability to induce robust T-cell responses in the majority of human populations. A tool in the identification of putative T-cell epitopes is in silico prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide binding. Candidate TB vaccine antigen Mtb72F and its successor M72 are recombinant fusion proteins derived from Mtb32A and Mtb39A (encoded by Rv0125 and Rv1196, respectively). Adjuvanted Mtb72F and M72 candidate vaccines were shown to induce CD4(+) T-cell responses in European, US, African and Asian populations.Sequence conservation of Mtb32A, Mtb39A, Mtb72F and M72 among 46 strains (prevalent Mycobacterium strains causing human TB disease, and H37Ra) was assessed by multiple alignments using ClustalX. For Mtb32A, Mtb39A and Mtb72F, 15-mer human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class II-binding peptides were predicted for 158 DRB1 alleles prevailing in populations with high TB burden, 6 DRB3/4/5, 8 DQ and 6 DP alleles, using NetMHCII-pan-3.0. Results for 3 DRB1 alleles were compared with previously published allele-matched in vitro binding data. Additional analyses were done for M72. Nonameric MHC class I-binding peptides in Mtb72F were predicted for three alleles representative of class I supertypes A02, A03 and B07, using seven prediction algorithms.Sequence identity among strains was 98% for each protein. Residue changes in Mtb39A comprised primarily single residue or nucleotide insertions and/or deletions in repeat regions, and were observed in 67% of strains. For Mtb72F, 156 DRB1, 6 DRB3/4/5, 7 DQ and 5 DP alleles were predicted to contain at least one MHC class II-binding peptide, and class I-binding peptides were predicted for each HLA-A/B allele. Comparison of predicted MHC-II-binding peptides with experimental data indicated that the algorithms sensitivity and specificity were variable among alleles.The sequences from which Mtb72F and M72 are derived are highly conserved among representative Mycobacterium strains. Predicted putative T-cell epitopes in M72 and/or Mtb72F covered a wide array of HLA alleles. In silico binding predictions for class I- and II-binding putative epitopes can be complemented with biochemical verification of HLA binding capacity, processing and immunogenicity of the predicted peptides.