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Rixensart, Belgium

Antonis A.F.G.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI of Wageningen UR | De Jong M.C.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI of Wageningen UR | Van Der Poel W.H.M.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI of Wageningen UR | Van Der Poel W.H.M.,University of Liverpool | And 5 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2010

The severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections appears to differ with age in both humans and bovines. A primary RSV infection in naïve infants and in young calves runs a more severe course when they are 1-6 months old than in their first month of life. The relative lack of clinical signs in the first month of age may be due to high levels of maternally derived neutralizing antibodies or low exposure to infectious virus. This study examined whether age-dependent differences in the pathogenesis of bovine RSV (bRSV) between neonatal and young calves may be due to differences in age-dependent immunocompetence. To study the effect of age and immune parameters on bRSV disease in neonatal and young calves, neonatal (1-day-old) calves without maternally derived antibodies were infected experimentally with bRSV and the severity of disease and immune responses were evaluated in comparison with disease in similar 6-week-old infected calves. Neonatal calves had more extensive virus replication and lung consolidation, but lower pro-inflammatory [in particular tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] responses, specific humoral immune responses, lung neutrophilic infiltration and clinical signs of disease than 6-week-old calves. The lack of correlation between virus replication and clinical signs suggests an important role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-α, in the disease. The capacity to produce pro-inflammatory TNF-α appeared to increase with age, and may explain the age-dependent differences in RSV pathogenesis. © 2010 SGM. Source


Oyen D.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Oyen D.,Scripps Research Institute | Steyaert J.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Barlow J.N.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Barlow J.N.,Rue Of Linstitut
Biochemistry | Year: 2014

We describe the first example of an inhibitory antibody fragment (nanobody ca1697) that binds simultaneously to an enzyme (the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli) and its bound substrate (folate). Binding of the antibody to the substrate causes a 20-fold reduction in the rate of folate exchange kinetics. This work opens up the prospect of designing new types of antibody-based inhibitors of enzymes and receptors through suitable design of immunogens. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Potluri L.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Karczmarek A.,University of Amsterdam | Verheul J.,University of Amsterdam | Piette A.,University of Liege | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2010

The distribution of PBP5, the major D,D-carboxypeptidase in Escherichia coli, was mapped by immunolabelling and by visualization of GFP fusion proteins in wild-type cells and in mutants lacking one or more D,D-carboxypeptidases. In addition to being scattered around the lateral envelope, PBP5 was also concentrated at nascent division sites prior to visible constriction. Inhibiting PBP2 activity (which eliminates wall elongation) shifted PBP5 to midcell, whereas inhibiting PBP3 (which aborts divisome invagination) led to the creation of PBP5 rings at positions of preseptal wall formation, implying that PBP5 localizes to areas of ongoing peptidoglycan synthesis. A PBP5(S44G) active site mutant was more evenly dispersed, indicating that localization required enzyme activity and the availability of pentapeptide substrates. Both the membrane bound and soluble forms of PBP5 converted pentapeptides to tetrapeptides in vitro and in vivo, and the enzymes accepted the same range of substrates, including sacculi, Lipid II, muropeptides and artificial substrates. However, only the membrane-bound form localized to the developing septum and restored wild-type rod morphology to shape defective mutants, suggesting that the two events are related. The results indicate that PBP5 localization to sites of ongoing peptidoglycan synthesis is substrate dependent and requires membrane attachment. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Leroux-Roels G.,Ghent University | Van Damme P.,University of Antwerp | Haazen W.,SGS Life Science Services | Shakib S.,University of Adelaide | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

Background: Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of various respiratory diseases. The development of an effective vaccine against NTHi mandates new approaches beyond conjugated vaccines as this opportunistic bacterium is non-encapsulated. Here we report on the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a multi-component investigational vaccine based on three conserved surface proteins from NTHi (proteins D [PD], E [PE] and Pilin A [PilA]) in two observer-blind phase I studies. Methods: In the first study (NCT01657526), 48 healthy 18-40 year-olds received two vaccine formulations (10 or 30μg of each antigen [PD and a fusion protein PE-PilA]) or saline placebo at months 0 and 2. In the second study (NCT01678677), 270 50-70 year-olds, current or former smokers, received eight vaccine formulations (10 or 30μg antigen/dose non-adjuvanted or adjuvanted with alum, AS01E or AS04C) or saline placebo at months 0, 2 and 6 (plain and alum-adjuvanted groups) and at months 0 and 2 (AS-adjuvanted groups). Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 and 30 days post-vaccination, respectively; potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) and serious AEs (SAEs) throughout the studies. Humoral and antigen-specific T-cell immunity (in study 2 only) responses were assessed up to 12 months post-vaccination. Results: Observed reactogenicity was highest in the AS-adjuvanted groups but no safety concerns were identified with any of the NTHi vaccine formulations. One fatal SAE (cardiac arrest) not considered related to vaccination, and one pIMD (non-serious psoriasis) in the Placebo group, were reported post-dose 3 in Study 2. All formulations generated a robust antibody response while the AS01-adjuvanted formulations produced the highest humoral and cellular immune responses. Conclusion: This study confirms that the NTHi vaccine formulations had an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile and were immunogenic in adults. These results justify further clinical development of this NTHi vaccine candidate. © 2016 The Authors. Source


Segal L.,GSK Vaccines | Roger V.,WIL Research Europe Lyon | Williams C.,Huntingdon Life science Ltd. | Destexhe E.,Rue Of Linstitut | Garcon N.,Rue Of Linstitut
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Adjuvants Systems (AS) containing immunostimulant combinations are used in human vaccines. Safety pharmacology studies evaluated the cardiorespiratory effects of AS in conscious telemetered dogs and in anaesthetised rats. Sixteen telemetered beagle dogs (4/group) received intramuscular injections of saline at Day 0, and one clinical dose of AS01, AS03, AS04 or AS15 at Day 7 (7× the equivalent human dose on a bodyweight basis). Bodyweights were measured through Day 14 and cardiorespiratory parameters and body temperature through 72 h post-treatment. Anaesthetised rats (4/group) received one intravenous injection of AS01, AS03 or AS15 at 1 mL/kg bodyweight (140× the equivalent human dosages), or saline. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured for 120 min post-dose. In dogs, food consumption and mean bodyweight decreased with AS03, and mean body temperature slightly increased with AS01, AS03 and AS15, but were not considered to be adverse. Cardiovascular effects (a slight, reversible increase in mean heart rate and shortened mean RR/PR/QT-intervals) were observed with AS15. No relevant clinical effects or effects on QRS-complex/QTc-interval durations, arterial pressure or respiratory parameters were observed. In rats, there were no consistent treatment-related effects. Collectively, this suggests that AS01, AS03, AS04 and AS15 are not associated with potentially deleterious effects on ventricular repolarisation, atrio/intra-ventricular conductivities or respiratory functions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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