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Uppsala, Sweden

Zhao Z.,University of Southern California | Nelson A.R.,University of Southern California | Betsholtz C.,Rudbeck Laboratory | Zlokovic B.V.,University of Southern California
Cell | Year: 2015

Structural and functional brain connectivity, synaptic activity, and information processing require highly coordinated signal transduction between different cell types within the neurovascular unit and intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions. Here, we examine the mechanisms regulating the formation and maintenance of the BBB and functions of BBB-associated cell types. Furthermore, we discuss the growing evidence associating BBB breakdown with the pathogenesis of inherited monogenic neurological disorders and complex multifactorial diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential for synaptic activity and brain connectivity. Growing evidence suggests the association between BBB breakdown and the pathogenesis of both monogenic and multifactorial neurological disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Landegren U.,Rudbeck Laboratory
New Biotechnology | Year: 2013

After the conclusion of the second five-year period of the European Science Foundation (ESF) programme on functional genomics, it is time to take stock and evaluate its accomplishments. The programme networked leading scientists from a large number of European countries for strategy discussions about the promotion of functional genomics research, and to arrange scientific meetings and exchange programmes. In brief, I believe this programme has punched above its weight, and that it has successfully contributed to the overall organisation of molecular biosciences in Europe. With a modest annual budget the programme has created several interesting new opportunities, some of which may have yet to show their full impact. However, these mini-reviews are intended to provide a personal perspective on this functional genomics effort, and accordingly I focus on my personal experiences from the ESF programme. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tolmachev V.,Rudbeck Laboratory | Malmberg J.,Uppsala University | Estrada S.,Uppsala University | Eriksson O.,Uppsala University | Orlova A.,Uppsala University
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Correct staging of prostate cancer is an unmet clinical need. Radionuclide targeting of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with 111In- labeled capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) is a clinical option for prostate cancer staging. We propose the use of 124I-labeled capromab to decrease the retention of radioactivity in healthy organs (due to the non-residualizing properties of the radiolabel). The use of 124I as a label should increase imaging sensitivity due to the advantages of PET as an imaging modality. Capromab targets the intracellular domain of PSMA; accumulation of radioactivity in the tumor should not depend on internalization of the antigen/antibody complex. Capromab was iodinated, and its targeting properties were compared with indium labeled counterpart in LNCaP xenografts in dual isotope mode. PSMA-negative xenografts (PC3) were used as a negative control. Radioiodinated capromab bound to PSMA specifically. Biodistribution of 125I/111In-capromab showed a more rapid clearance of iodine radioactivity from liver, spleen, kidneys, bones, colon tissue, as well as tumors. Maximum tumor uptake (13±8% ID/g for iodine and 29±9% ID/g for indium) and tumor-to-non-tumor ratios for both agents were measured 5 days post-injection (pi). High tumor accumulation and low uptake of radioactivity in normal organs were confirmed using microPET/CT 5 days pi of 124I-capromab. Source

Loov C.,Uppsala University Hospital | Nadadhur A.G.,Uppsala University Hospital | Hillered L.,Uppsala University Hospital | Clausen F.,Uppsala University Hospital | Erlandsson A.,Rudbeck Laboratory
Journal of Neurotrauma | Year: 2015

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a heterogeneous disease, and the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic TBI biomarkers is highly desirable in order to individualize patient care. We have previously published a study in which we identified possible TBI biomarkers by mass spectrometry 24?h after injury in a cell culture model. Ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins were found abundantly in the medium after trauma, and in the present study we have identified extracellular ezrin as a possible biomarker for brain trauma by analyzing cell culture medium from injured primary neurons and glia and by measuring ezrin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from both rats and humans. Our results show that extracellular ezrin concentration was substantially increased in cell culture medium after injury, but that the intracellular expression of the protein remained stable over time. Controlled cortical impact injured rats showed an increased amount of ezrin in CSF at both day 3 and day 7 after trauma. Moreover, ezrin was present in all ventricular CSF samples from seven humans with severe TBI. In contrast to intracellular ezrin, which is distinctly activated following TBI, extracellular ezrin is nonphosphorylated. This is the first report of extracellular ERM proteins in human and experimental models of TBI, providing a scientific foundation for further assessment of ezrin as a potential biomarker. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015. Source

de Leeuw N.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Dijkhuizen T.,University of Groningen | Hehir-Kwa J.Y.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Carter N.P.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | And 13 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2012

The range of commercially available array platforms and analysis software packages is expanding and their utility is improving, making reliable detection of copy-number variants (CNVs) relatively straightforward. Reliable interpretation of CNV data, however, is often difficult and requires expertise. With our knowledge of the human genome growing rapidly, applications for array testing continuously broadening, and the resolution of CNV detection increasing, this leads to great complexity in interpreting what can be daunting data. Correct CNV interpretation and optimal use of the genotype information provided by single-nucleotide polymorphism probes on an array depends largely on knowledge present in various resources. In addition to the availability of host laboratories' own datasets and national registries, there are several public databases and Internet resources with genotype and phenotype information that can be used for array data interpretation. With so many resources now available, it is important to know which are fit-for-purpose in a diagnostic setting. We summarize the characteristics of the most commonly used Internet databases and resources, and propose a general data interpretation strategy that can be used for comparative hybridization, comparative intensity, and genotype-based array data. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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