Indonesian Rubber Research Institute

Salak, Indonesia

Indonesian Rubber Research Institute

Salak, Indonesia
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Fathurrohman M.I.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Kinasih N.A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

The mechanical properties and swelling behavior of n-pentane through acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) with different acrylonitrile content were studied. In addition to the mechanical and the swelling properties, the curing characteristics and crosslink density were also investigated. The vulcanization kinetic parameters were determined using autocatalytic model. The NBR with 33% acrylonitrile content showed the highest the activation energy. The highest crosslink density was obtained from the NBR with acrylonitrile content 28% and the crosslink density effected to its mechanical properties and swelling behavior. The highest crosslink density exhibited the highest hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break values, the better compression set, the lowest equilibrium n-pentane uptake (Q∞) and the Sorption coefficient (S). The Diffusion coefficient (D) increased with decreasing the acrylonitrile content. © Medwell Journals, 2016.

Ramadhan A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Irfan Fathurrohman M.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Falaah A.F.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Setyawan N.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Post Harvest Research and Development | Soegijono B.,University of Indonesia
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

The interlayer basal spacing of organoclay (OC) could be increased with stearic acid (SA) added, thus OC changed into expanded organoclay by SA (OCSA). The effect of various loadings of OCSA on the curing, mechanical and swelling properties of natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were studied. The natural rubber/expanded organoclay (NR/OCSA) nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation using a laboratory open mill. The curing characteristics of NR compounds were determined using a Moving Die Rheometer (MDR). The X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared (ATR-IR) Spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) were used to study the dispersion of OCSA in the NR matrix. The mechanical properties of NR/OCSA nanocomposites such as tensile strength, elongation at break and hardness were determined using ISO standard and swelling of NR/OCSA nanocomposites in toluene were determined using ISO 1817. The results showed that the SA intercalated into the gallery of OC and reacted with the hydroxyl groups in OC. It was indicated with the shifting of the negative peak 1,700 to 1,723 cm-1 in the ATR-IR spectrum and increase the d-spacing of OC. The adding of various loadings of OCSA into NR could increase the torque and accelerate the curing of nanocomposites and it also could increase the mechanical and swelling properties of nanocomposites. The change in modulus at 100% elongation significantly increased with increasing the OCSA load until maximum loading at 10 phr. This trend was same with the hardness and modulus at 300% elongation. Meanwhile, the improvement of tensile strength and elongation at break was higher at 4 phr OCSA compared with the other loading. The increase of mechanical and swelling properties of NR/OCSA nanocomposites was due to intercalation/exfoliation of OCSA in NR matrix. It was revealed by appearing of the out-of-plane Si-O-(Al) stretch with peak value 1080 cm-1 in the ATR-IR spectrum and the peaks of OCSA in the XRD pattern was disappeared until the loading of OCSA 8 phr and the thickness of morphology of OCSA below 100 nm. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Cifriadi A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Chalid M.,University of Indonesia | Puspitasari S.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

Natural rubber is unsaturated biopolymer which has low resistance to heat, oxygen, and ozone. Chemical modification of natural rubber by catalytic hydrogenation can improve its oxidative property. In this study, the catalytic hydrogenation of natural rubber was investigated in latex phase after reduction of protein content with urea. Hydrogenation of deproteinized natural rubber latex was performed by using diimide which generated insitu from hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide and catalyst (boric acid, cupric sulfate and cupric acetate) at 70°C for 5 h. The hydrogenation system was stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulphate. The hydrogenation of deproteinized natural rubber (HDPNR) was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The result indicated that cupric sulphate was extremely active catalyst which was showed by the elimination of C=C transmittance bands at 1660 cm-1 on HDPNR spectra and highest degree of hydrogenation. Furthermore, urea deproteinization increased possibility of side reactions during catalytic hydrogenation as seen on the reduction of gel content compared to undeproteinized natural rubber. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Isroi,Indonesian Research Institute for Biotechnology and Bioindustri | Cifriadi A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Panji T.,Indonesian Research Institute for Biotechnology and Bioindustri | Wibowo N.A.,Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute | Syamsu K.,Bogor Agricultural University
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2017

Empty fruit bunch is available abundantly in Indonesia as side product of CPO production. EFB production in Indonesia reached 28.65 million tons in 2015. EFB consist of 36.67% cellulose, 13.50% hemicellulose and 31.16% lignin. By calculation, potential cellulose from EFB is 11.50 million tons. Cellulose could be utilized as source for bioplastic production. This research aims to develop bioplastic production based on cellulose from EFB and to increase added value of EFB. Cellulose fiber has no plastic properties. Molecular modification of cellulose, composite with plasticizer and compatibilizer is a key success for utilization of cellulose for bioplastic. Main steps of bioplastic production from EFB are: 1) isolation and purification of cellulose, 2) cellulose modification and 3) synthesis of bioplastic. Cellulose was isolated by sodium hydroxide methods and bleached using sodium hypochlorite. Purity of obtained cellulose was 97%. Cellulose yield could reach 30% depend on cellulose content of EFB. Cellulose side chain was oxidized to reduce hydroxyl group and increase the carboxyl group. Bioplastic synthesis used glycerol as plasticizer and cassava starch as matrix. This research was successfully producing bioplastic sheet by casting method. In future prospects, bioplastic from EFB cellulose can be developed as plastic bag and food packaging. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Kinasih N.A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Fathurrohman M.I.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Winarto D.A.,Center for Polymer Technology
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) with different level of epoxidation (i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol% indicated as ENR ENR10, ENR20, ENR30, ENR40 and ENR50, respectively) were prepared. They were then vulcanized by using efficient system vulcanization. The effect of epoxide content on curing characteristic, swelling and mechanical properties in N-pentane was investigated. The Attenuated Resonance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) were used to determine the epoxidation level. Glass transition (Tg) of ENR samples was determined by using Direct Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The result revealed that the resistance of ENR in N-pentane increased with increasing epoxidation level, which indicated by decreasing equilibrium mol uptake and diffusion coefficient. The compression set of ENR and aging resistance increased with increasing epoxide content, except ENR50 was due to ENR 50 have two Tg value. However, the value of hardness and tensile strength were not effected by epoxidation level. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Cifriadi A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Chalid M.,University of Indonesia | Puspitasari S.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute
International Journal of Technology | Year: 2017

Oxidation resistance and thermal stability of natural rubber (NR) can be improved by diimide transfer hydrogenation in the latex phase. In this research, non-catalytic diimide transfer hydrogenation of concentrated NR latex was accomplished at various proportions of hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide. The system was stabilized with the addition of sodium hydroxide. Hydrogenated natural rubber (HNR) was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and degree of hydrogenation. The possibility of side reactions during hydrogenation was also studied by analyzing the gel content and particle size distribution of HNR. It is known that the highest degree of hydrogenation is obtained from the addition of 2 phr hydrazine hydrate and 3 phr hydrogen peroxide at 70oC for a 5-hour diimide transfer hydrogenation of concentrated natural rubber latex, preserved with 1 phr of sodium hydroxide. The higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide trigger crosslink reaction of non-rubber constituent, and depolymerization of HNR molecular chains, were shown by the increased gel content and reduction of HNR particle size distribution, respectively. © 2017 IJTech.

Ardika R.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Sanchez P.B.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños | Badayos R.B.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños | Cruz P.C.S.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños
Agrivita | Year: 2017

Rubber is an important commodity for Indonesia. Currently, a problem encountered in the propagation of rubber planting materials is the availability of ideal soils with optimum nutrition as the planting medium. Peat can be used as a growing medium but it still has weaknesses such as high level of acidity and poor in nutrient content. This study was aimed to assess the performance of rubber budded stump grown on modified potting medium and applied with different forms and rates of fertilizers. The nursery experiment consisted of 17 treatments and arranged in a randomized complete block design. After rubber nursery stage, the performance of the rubber budded stump were also monitored in the field for 10 months. Results showed that mixture of peat and soil with the application of recommended rate of solid or liquid fertilizer produced rubber budded stump with bigger stem diameter and taller plants. The potting medium stimulated early root development which led to higher nutrient uptake. These budded stump also performed better in field, showed higher leaf nutrient concentration after 6 months and produced bigger stem diameter after 10 months. © 2017, Agriculture Faculty Brawijaya University. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics, Indonesian Biotechnology Research Institute for Estate Crops, Rubber Research Institute and Unite mixte de recherche Amelioration Genetique et Adaptation des Plantes mediterraneennes et tropicales
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

Kuswanhadi,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Leclercq J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rio M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Tregear J.,IRD Montpellier | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Rubber Research | Year: 2010

Ethylene is a major stimulating factor for natural rubber production in Hevea brasiliensis and is often applied in the form of Ethephon, an ethylene releaser. In a positive feedback type mechanism, the application of ethylene leads to the enhanced expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis such as ACC oxidases, which are also responsive to wounding. We studied the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in rubber trees through the characterisation of the ACC oxidase multigene family and the responses of individual genes to ethylene and wounding. Three full-length cDNAs, HbACOl, HbAC02 and HbAC03, were isolated. The HbACOs were 1115, 1174 and 1074 bp long, respectively, with open reading frames encoding polypeptides of 312, 318 and 318 amino acids, respectively. The genomic sequences of HbACOl andHbkC02 were also characterised, revealing divergent gene structures: HbACOl (1456 bp) possesses three introns andfour exons, while HbAC02 (1418 bp) consists of two introns and three exons. All of the HbACO genes were expressed at all stages of development studied, from in vitro callus to the exploited plant, but with different expression profiles. Nevertheless, no expression was detected in latex. In the bark of the shoot of the first flush of budded plants, HbACOl was expressed at a higher level than the other genes, and was down-regulated by ethylene and wounding in both leaf and bark tissues. In contrast, HbAC02 and HbAC03 were transiently induced in response to ethylene and wounding. Treatment with 1-MCP, an ethylene action inhibitor, abolished the ethylene induction ofHbAC02 gene, showing that this gene was under positive feedback regulation. The expression of HbAC03 gene was also induced by ethylene treatment and wounding, again with an antagonistic effect of 1-MCP. In conclusion, HbACOl appears to be responsible for basal levels of ethylene production while HbAC02 and HbAC03 are up-regulated in response to external factors.

Fathurrohman M.I.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Maspanger D.R.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Sutrisno S.,Institute of Space Technology
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis | Year: 2015

The vulcanization kinetics of Ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber thermal insulation was studied by using rheometer under isothermal condition at different temperatures. The rheometry analysis was used to determine the cure kinetic parameters and predicting the optimum curing time of EPDM thermal insulation. The experimental results revealed that the curing curves of EPDM thermal insulation were marching and the optimum curing time decreased with the increasing of temperature. The kinetic parameters were determined from the autocatalytic model that showed a close fitting with the experimental results. It also indicated a suitability of autocatalytic model in characterizing the cure kinetics. The optimum curing time was predicted from autocatalytic model and the kinetic pa-rameters were obtained by using the relationship between degree of conversion, cure temperature, and cure time. The predictions of cure time provided information on the actual curing characteristic of EPDM thermal insulation. The mechanical properties of EPDM thermal insulation with different vul-canization temperatures showed the same hardness, tensile strength and modulus at 300%, except at temperature 70 °C, while the elongation at breaking point decreased with the increasing temperature of vul-canization. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.

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