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Joinville, Brazil

Erzinger G.S.,Masters and PhD Program in Health and Environment | Souza S.C.,Instituto Educacional Santa Catarina | Pinto L.H.,Rua Paulo Malschitzki | Hoppe R.,Municipal Foundation for Rural Development | And 4 more authors.

Several research groups have studied new biopesticides which are less toxic to the environment and capable of controlling the vectors of parasitic diseases, especially in aquatic ecosystems. Pest control by photodynamic substances is an alternative to chemical or other measures, with chlorophyll and its derivatives as the most studied substances supported by their easy availability and low production costs. The impact of chlorophyll derivatives on four different species, a small crustacean (Daphnia similis), a unicellular alga (Euglena gracilis) and two species of fish (Astyanax bimaculatus and Cyprynus carpio) were tested under short-term conditions. In addition, the effects of long-term exposure were evaluated in D. similis and E. gracilis. In short-term tests, mortality of D. similis (EC50 = 7.75 mg/L) was most strongly affected by chlorophyllin, followed by E. gracilis (EC50 = 12.73 mg/L). The fish species showed a greater resistance documented by their EC50 values of 17.58 and 29.96 mg/L in C. carpio and A. bimaculatus, respectively. A risk quotient is calculated by dividing an estimate of exposure by an estimate of effect. It indicated that chlorophyll derivatives can be applied in nature to control the vectors of parasitic diseases under short-term conditions, but long-term exposure requires new formulations. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Machado C.K.,Rua Paulo Malschitzki | Pinto L.H.,Rua Paulo Malschitzki | Ciampo L.F.D.,Inovaparq | Lorenzi L.,Rua Paulo Malschitzki | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Understanding the toxicity of certain potentially toxic compounds on various aquatic organisms allows to assess the impact that these pollutants on the aquatic biota. One source of pollution is the wastewater from hemodialysis. The process of sewage treatment is inefficient in inhibition and removal of pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics in this wastewater. In many countries, such as Brazil, during emergencies, sewage and effluents from hospitals are often dumped directly into waterways without any previous treatment. The objective of this study was to characterize the effluents generated by hemodialysis and to assess the degree of acute and chronic environmental toxicity. The effluents of hemodialysis showed high concentrations of nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, ammonia, and total nitrogen, as well as elevated conductivity, turbidity, salinity, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, exceeding the thresholds defined in the CONAMA Resolution 430. The samples showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate Euglena gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), compactness, upward movement, and alignment, with mean EC50 values of recalculate as 76.90 percent (±4.68 percent) of the undiluted effluents. In tests with Daphnia magna, the acute toxicity EC50 was 86.91 percent (±0.39 percent) and a NOEC value of 72.97 percent and a LEOC value 94.66 percent. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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