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Raleigh, NC, United States

RTI International is a nonprofit organization headquartered in the Research Triangle Park in North Carolina that provides research and technical services. It was founded in 1958 with $500,000 in funding by local businesses and the three North Carolina universities in the Research Triangle region. RTI started with departments for research in isotopes, operational science and statistics. It restructured into four departments in 1971 and later created the Office for International Projects, now called the International Development Group. RTI later split into eleven departments, including Health Research, Drug Discovery & Development, Education & Training Research, Survey Research, among others. The US Agency for International Development has come to account for 35 percent of RTI's research revenue. RTI research has covered HIV/AIDS, healthcare, education curriculum and the environment, among others. Wikipedia.


Lohr K.N.,Rti International
Medical Care | Year: 2010

Background: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, in expanding its efforts to advance methods for comparative effectiveness research (CER), convened a second invitational symposium in June 2009 through its Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions About Effectiveness (DEcIDE) network. A distinguished Planning Committee set the agenda, reviewed more than 70 abstracts, and invited almost 30 speakers; the program emphasized issues of clinical heterogeneity and longitudinal outcomes, including patientreported measures. Results: Conference papers covered a varied set of points about 3 major areas of CER: study design and data collection issues; statistical and analytic techniques; and applications to policy and clinical decision-making. Both primary data collection and analyses of databases (including electronic health records and distributed networks) are crucial for the CER agenda. Methods advances enable investigators to pay greater attention to important population subgroups, including persons of low literacy, non-English speaking patients, or the frail elderly. Both established and newer statistical techniques-eg, propensity scoring and various types of modeling, including Bayesian approaches-offer analysts improved ways to address issues such as confounding and measurement bias. Finally, some articles provided guidance for and examples of extending CER into newer realms, such as evaluations of medical devices or surgical procedures, and providing better information for decision-makers, clinicians, and patients. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Graber M.L.,Rti International
BMJ Quality and Safety | Year: 2013

A wide variety of research studies suggest that breakdowns in the diagnostic process result in a staggering toll of harm and patient deaths. These include autopsy studies, case reviews, surveys of patient and physicians, voluntary reporting systems, using standardised patients, second reviews, diagnostic testing audits and closed claims reviews. Although these different approaches provide important information and unique insights regarding diagnostic errors, each has limitations and none is well suited to establishing the incidence of diagnostic error in actual practice, or the aggregate rate of error and harm. We argue that being able to measure the incidence of diagnostic error is essential to enable research studies on diagnostic error, and to initiate quality improvement projects aimed at reducing the risk of error and harm. Three approaches appear most promising in this regard: (1) using 'trigger tools' to identify from electronic health records cases at high risk for diagnostic error; (2) using standardised patients (secret shoppers) to study the rate of error in practice; (3) encouraging both patients and physicians to voluntarily report errors they encounter, and facilitating this process. Source


The growth in US incarcerated populations has produced unintended negative consequences for other justice system agencies. The community corrections field is faced with two related problems stemming from prison growth: (1) significant growth in populations under supervision and (2) populations with higher needs for service. I apply a theoretical framework adapted from organizational sociological research to address change and stasis as isomorphic processes. Criminologists rarely situate the community corrections field within broader theoretical perspectives. Instead, correctional researchers have studied the emergence, adjustment, and use of prisons in modern society, with community supervision considered a part of institutional corrections. I argue that contemporary explanations for correction policies need to be refined to account for specific trends within the community corrections field. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


Tyl R.W.,Rti International
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2014

Bisphenol A (BPA), synthesized in 1891, is produced in quantities of >2 million metric tons annually for polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and food contact applications. BPA can be a weak estrogen mimic, and is ubiquitous in humans (in 93% US population; in 96% US pregnant women). European/US food/drug agencies conclude that current BPA levels present no risk to the general population (some include infants/children); basic endocrine disruption (ED) researchers state that entire populations are at risk from these levels. The US Food and Drug Administration banned BPA in baby bottles in 2012 'not based on safety concerns'; the US Environmental Protection Agency and its UK counterpart concurred. Basic ED researchers report reproductive/developmental effects from perinatal BPA exposure in mice at very low doses, e.g. 2 ng/g body weight (0.002 mg/kg body weight), with non-monotonic dose-response (NMDR) curves, using few animals per group and few groups; contract research organizations, in good laboratory practice- and guideline-compliant large studies in rats and mice, report no low-dose effects or NMDR curves. The argument rages! © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hickey A.J.,Rti International
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

There is increasing interest in the delivery of drugs to the lungs to treat a variety of diseases. The spatial and temporal influence of deposition and clearance mechanisms on the fate of inhaled materials are important factors in the control of delivery of therapeutic agents to the lungs. Balancing anatomical and physiological considerations with pharmaceutical properties dictates the therapeutic potential of any pharmacological and immunological strategy. A brief introduction of aerosol properties and inhaler technology is followed by considerations of in vitro and in vivo disposition in the context of controlled drug release for achieving anatomical, physiological and therapeutic targeting. Comprehensive assessment of drug delivery to, and disposition from, the lungs is required if controlled and targeted strategies are to be successful. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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