Barkley P.M.,University of Leicester |
Gonzalez Abad G.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics |
Kurosu P.T.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory |
Spurr R.,Rt Solutions, Llc |
And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2017
Using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) trace gas vertical column observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and glyoxal (CHOCHO), we have conducted a robust and detailed time series analysis to assess changes in local air quality for over 1000 locations (focussing on urban, oil refinery, oil port, and power plant targets) over the Middle East for 2005-2014. Apart from NO2, which is highest over urban locations, average tropospheric column levels of these trace gases are highest over oil ports and refineries. The highest average pollution levels over urban settlements are typically in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates.
We detect 278 statistically significant and real linear NO2 trends in total. Over urban areas NO2 increased by up to 12ĝ€%ĝ€yrĝ'1, with only two locations showing a decreasing trend. Over oil refineries, oil ports, and power plants, NO2 increased by about 2-9ĝ€%ĝ€yrĝ'1. For HCHO, 70 significant and real trends were detected, with HCHO increasing by 2-7ĝ€%ĝ€yrĝ'1 over urban settlements and power plants and by about 2-4ĝ€%ĝ€yrĝ'1 over refineries and oil ports. Very few SO2 trends were detected, which varied in direction and magnitude (23 increasing and 9 decreasing). Apart from two locations where CHOCHO is decreasing, we find that glyoxal tropospheric column levels are not changing over the Middle East. Hence, for many locations in the Middle East, OMI observes a degradation in air quality over 2005-2014. This study therefore demonstrates the capability of OMI to generate long-term air-quality monitoring at local scales over this region. © 2017 The Author(s).
Spurr R.,Rt Solutions, Llc |
Natraj V.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory |
Lerot C.,Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy |
Van Roozendael M.,Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy |
Loyola D.,German Aerospace Center
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer | Year: 2013
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a promising tool for enhancing radiative transfer (RT) performance. When applied to binned optical property data sets, PCA exploits redundancy in the optical data, and restricts the number of full multiple-scatter calculations to those optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, yet still maintaining high accuracy in the radiance approximations. We show that the entire PCA RT enhancement process is analytically differentiable with respect to any atmospheric or surface parameter, thus allowing for accurate and fast approximations of Jacobian matrices, in addition to radiances. This linearization greatly extends the power and scope of the PCA method to many remote sensing retrieval applications and sensitivity studies. In the first example, we examine accuracy for PCA-derived UV-backscatter radiance and Jacobian fields over a 290-340. nm window. In a second application, we show that performance for UV-based total ozone column retrieval is considerably improved without compromising the accuracy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Spurr R.,Rt Solutions, Llc |
Wang J.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln |
Zeng J.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln |
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer | Year: 2012
We present a new linearization of T-Matrix and Mie computations for light scattering by non-spherical and spherical particles, respectively. In addition to the usual extinction and scattering cross-sections and the scattering matrix outputs, the linearized models will generate analytical derivatives of these optical properties with respect to the real and imaginary parts of the particle refractive index, and (for non-spherical scatterers) with respect to the "shape" parameter (the spheroid aspect ratio, cylinder diameter/height ratio, Chebyshev particle deformation factor). These derivatives are based on the essential linearity of Maxwell's theory. Analytical derivatives are also available for polydisperse particle size distribution parameters such as the mode radius. The T-matrix formulation is based on the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies FORTRAN 77 code developed in the 1990s. The linearized scattering codes presented here are in FORTRAN 90 and will be made publicly available. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Rt Solutions, Llc | Date: 2011-05-11
A method of processing organic waste which includes aerobically conditioning, in a dominantly thermophilic regime lasting at least 72 hours, a mixture of organic wastes having a carbon to nitrogen ratio between approximately 15 to 1 to 45 to 1 so as to form a feedstock, applying the feedstock to a worm bed; and maintaining a temperature and humidity of the worm bed and applied feedstock to maintain a mesophilic dominant regime within the worm bed.
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2014
Hydroponic vegetable production in the U.S. has experienced steady substantial growth due to its ability to produce fresh produce, year round close to the source(s) of consumption. A major obstacle to hydroponic production is the gap in effective conventional fungicides and sustainable/organic nutrient sources to protect edible raw food crop against significant root diseases such as Pythium. Fresh baby leaf spinach commands high value, but hydroponic production of spinach has historically been limited due to its susceptibility to Pythium. In this proposal Worm Power, a commercial earthworm composting (vermicomposting) company, is collaborating with the Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) group at Cornell University, which has conducted extensive research on the suitability of float pond hydroponics for commercial production of spinach.This project seeks to build on six-years of successful research between Worm Power and Cornell University on the plant growth and plant protection properties of their vermicompost materials (solids and liquid extracts). The goal is to determine, if and the extent to which the documented biologically-based disease suppressive properties of Worm Power in a new liquid extract form, can be effective against Pythium in commercial-type hydroponic baby spinach production. Pilot studies at Cornell have determined that vermicompost solids can be incorporated into the spinach seeding germination mix and liquid extracts used undiluted in the hydroponic nutrient solution without unwanted side-effects to the plants. Here we propose a multi-faceted work plan including the modification of Worm Power & #39;s extract production to test and make a standard commercial product suitable for hydroponic systems. Research at Cornell University will focus on multiple experimental systems to demonstrate both (1) Pythium suppression and (2) the general efficacy of the vermicompost extract in hydroponic spinach production.This project would contribute a novel approach to biological control and renewable/organic nutrients in hydroponic systems thus; (1) increasing the economic viability of small to mid sized farms via hydroponic production, (2) increasing the viability of small to mid sized worm farms, aka vermicomposters, and; (3) further developing an environmentally sustainable manure management system, to the overall economic benefit of U.S. agriculture.
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.99K | Year: 2014
The overwhelming majority of all seeds used in agriculture are treated with various agrichemicals and other materials to provide protection and support for young plants. Seed treatments applied by crop appropriate seed coating technologies comprise a specialized segment of the agrichemical industry with annual sales of over $3 billion.The goal of this project is to develop a first-of-its-kind biologically-based seed treatment, derived from earthworm composted (aka vermicomposted) dairy manure. RT Solutions (RTS) has developed a patented vermicomposting system that produces professional plant growth products and has nine-years of commercial experience in bringing these materials to market (OMRI listed for certified organic production). Additionally, RTS has an established six-year research relationship with Cornell University, where plant pathologists have discovered significant microbially mediated disease suppressive properties of the vermicompost. This project will combine the plant growth and plant protection properties of RTS vermicompost with seed coating expertise for the development of an organic seed treatment.A line of organic seed treatment products would allow growers both conventional and organic to transition towards more sustainable production practices. The development of biological seed treatments derived from natural earthworm systems is a win-win scenario for American agriculture as it aids both animal agriculture (manure management) and plant agriculture (safe, lower impacting practices) while creating a unique vermicomposting agri-business.
Rt Solutions, Llc | Date: 2016-01-26
Rt Solutions, Llc | Date: 2015-09-22
Augmented reality software for use in mobile devices for integrating electronic data with real world environments for the purpose of crowdsourcing for recreational sports and activities.
Rt Solutions, Llc | Date: 2010-04-06
Rt Solutions, Llc | Date: 2015-09-02
Augmented reality software for use in mobile devices for integrating electronic data with real world environments for the purpose of managing customer traffic within business venues.