Sarmin E.,RSC Energia
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010
The URAGAN research program is implemented aboard Russian Segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) for past 10 years. The main purpose of this program is to study disasters and critical environmental situation arising on the Earth. The paper provides a retrospective overview of URAGAN program. The basic concepts and objectives, which were set at the beginning of the experiment and directions of its future development, are examined. The ISS crewmembers play an important role in the experiment implementation. The paper explores key features of the experiment preparation, planning and carrying out, as well as processing and analysis of the data obtained. Application methods of the onboard research equipment, including newly developed the PhotoSpectral System (PSS) and digital photo cameras, as well as Sigma software developed for the experiment implementation support are discussed in details. The principle of their work, concepts, inherent in the design stage, output samples; details about working with different equipment are listed The new hardware improves the experiment comprehension but requires development and application of new approaches and methods for remote sensing data processing.The paper illustrates new concept of data processing methods, derived from the PSS, including a uniquetechnique of spatial interpolation of the recorded spectrum.
Smith M.B.,Bubble Technology Industries Inc. |
Khulapko S.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Andrews H.R.,Bubble Technology Industries Inc. |
Arkhangelsky V.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
And 5 more authors.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2014
Measurements using bubble detectors have been performed in order to characterise the neutron dose and energy spectrum in the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS). Experiments using bubble dosemeters and a bubble-detector spectrometer, a set of six detectors with different energy thresholds that is used to determine the neutron spectrum, were performed during the ISS-22 (2009) to ISS-33 (2012) missions. The spectrometric measurements are in good agreement with earlier data, exhibiting expected features of the neutron energy spectrum in space. Experiments using a hydrogenous radiation shield show that the neutron dose can be reduced by shielding, with a reduction similar to that determined in earlier measurements using bubble detectors. The bubble-detector data are compared with measurements performed on the ISS using other instruments and are correlated with potential influencing factors such as the ISS altitude and the solar activity. Surprisingly, these influences do not seem to have a strong effect on the neutron dose or energy spectrum inside the ISS. © The Author 2014.
Montenbruck O.,German Aerospace Center |
Rozkov S.,RSC Energia |
Semenov A.,RSC Energia |
Gomez S.F.,NASA |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets | Year: 2011
The International Space Station is equipped with Global Positioning System receivers that provide real-time position information at the 10 m accuracy level. In preparation of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space experiment, measurements from Russian and American receivers have been used to assess the navigation accuracy that can be achieved through postprocessing of navigation solutions and raw data in a precise orbit determination process. In addition, the capability to accurately forecast the space station orbit for operation of microwave and laser terminals has been studied. It is shown that the orbit can be reconstructed with a 1 m position accuracy and a 1 mm/s velocity accuracy even from single-frequency Global Positioning System measurements. For the test periodinmid 2006, short arc orbit predictions with a median error of 20 and 70 m could be obtained over forecast intervals of 6 and 12 h, respectively. The navigation accuracy obtained is compatible with the mission requirements for the relativistic correction of the atomic clocks and the quick look clock performance monitoring. Copyright © 2011 by Oliver Montenbruck. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Grigoriev A.I.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Sinyak Y.E.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Samsonov N.M.,NIICHIMMASH |
Bobe L.S.,NIICHIMMASH |
And 2 more authors.
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2011
The history, current status and future prospects of water recovery at space stations are discussed. Due to energy, space and mass limitations physical/chemical processes have been used and will be used in water recovery systems of space stations in the near future. Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station (ISS) the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine are described. A perspective physical/chemical system for water supply will be composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. Innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for Lunar and Mars missions have to be tested on the international space station. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PubMed | University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Bubble Technology Industries Inc. and RSC Energia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016
Bubble detectors have been used to characterise the neutron dose and energy spectrum in several modules of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of an ongoing radiation survey. A series of experiments was performed during the ISS-34, ISS-35, ISS-36 and ISS-37 missions between December 2012 and October 2013. The Radi-N2 experiment, a repeat of the 2009 Radi-N investigation, included measurements in four modules of the US orbital segment: Columbus, the Japanese experiment module, the US laboratory and Node 2. The Radi-N2 dose and spectral measurements are not significantly different from the Radi-N results collected in the same ISS locations, despite the large difference in solar activity between 2009 and 2013. Parallel experiments using a second set of detectors in the Russian segment of the ISS included the first characterisation of the neutron spectrum inside the tissue-equivalent Matroshka-R phantom. These data suggest that the dose inside the phantom is 70% of the dose at its surface, while the spectrum inside the phantom contains a larger fraction of high-energy neutrons than the spectrum outside the phantom. The phantom results are supported by Monte Carlo simulations that provide good agreement with the empirical data.
News Article | July 7, 2016
After their launch was postponed for two weeks because of glitches, a three-member international crew is finally on their way to space aboard Russia's upgraded Soyuz MS spacecraft, which took off from Kazakhstan on the morning of July 7. The new crew, which is designated as Soyuz MS-01, comprises biologist Kate Rubins, now a NASA astronaut; Anatoly Ivanishin, a Russian cosmonaut and Takuya Onishi, an astronaut from the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The trio will be the newest addition to the crew at the International Space Station (ISS), which is currently the home of NASA astronaut Jeff Williams and Russian cosmonauts Oleg Skripochka and Alexey Ovchinin. The Thursday launch was originally scheduled for June 24, but was delayed because of glitches in the spacecraft software, which could have affected the Soyuz craft's docking with the space station. Before docking to the space station's Rassvet module on July 9, the new crew will first spend two days or 34 Earth orbits testing modified systems. Rubins, Ivanishin and Onishi arrived at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in late June to complete final training and other pre-launch activities. Final preparations for the Soyuz spacecraft also took place during this time. The Soyuz craft was filled with compressed gases and propellant on June 27. It was brought to the processing facility and mounted onto a jig for handling. The Soyuz craft was then mated to the adapter section of the launch vehicle on June 28 and was inspected for the last time on June 30. After being assembled and mated with the craft on July 3, the Soyuz-FG rocket used in the launch was rolled out on the launch pad on July 4. The upgraded Soyuz rocket was created by Russian manufacturer RSC Energia. Known as Expedition 48, the current crew at the ISS will spend four months conducting more than 250 scientific investigations in various fields such as Earth science, biology, physical sciences, human research and technology development, according to NASA. Crew members will receive and install the first international docking adapter on the ISS, which will accommodate arrivals of U.S. commercial crew spacecraft in the future. This docking port is complete with built-in systems for automated docking and will be delivered to the ISS during the ninth commercial resupply mission of Elon Musk's aerospace company SpaceX. Additionally, Expedition 48 is expected to receive the sixth commercial resupply mission of SpaceX's rival, American aerospace manufacturer Orbital ATK, as well as two Russian Progress resupply flights. Both will deliver tons of food, supplies, fuel and research equipment. Watch the video of the launch below. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | January 20, 2017
NASA has recently awarded more contracts to SpaceX and Boeing to ferry its astronauts to the International Space Station — and potentially reduce its dependence to the Russian Soyuz spacecraft for its missions. But in a recent development, NASA has proposed to buy additional Soyuz seats to take advantage of Russian plans of reducing crew size and as a form of insurance in the face of commercial crew delays. In a “sources sought” procurement it filed last Jan. 17, NASA expressed the said plan to acquire two Soyuz seats via Boeing for its ISS missions in the fall of this year and the spring of 2018, as well as options for three added seats in 2019. According to the filing, Boeing got rights to the Soyuz seats from the vehicle maker RSC Energia. The two seats came about as Russian space agency Roscosmos announced back in September its plan to reduce its crew on the ISS from three to two, from March to a new lab module’s launch anticipated next year. Boeing won rights to the seats as it agreed with Energia in a settlement of a legal battle related to Sea Launch. It won a more than $320-million federal case against the latter in May last year, but legal filings that followed reflect a settlement in the works between the two companies. “We got together with Energia and discussed what in-kind things that we could perhaps put on the table that might offset this debt,” said Boeing vice president and space exploration general manager John Elbon in a previous interview, confirming that rights to the Soyuz seats are indeed part of the agreement. Boeing then offered the available seats to NASA and is now working with the different parties for a potential deal. As a potential consequence, NASA may add one more crew member to the ISS’ U.S. side. Interestingly, a likely deal includes three added seats on two Soyuz trips in the spring of 2019. NASA’s contract with the Russian space agency for regular space taxi services ends in 2018, at which point the commercial crew firms are expected to take over. Questions on the readiness of Boeing’s and SpaceX’s vehicles, however, remain as the two providers have not reserved test flights for both the Starliner and Crew Dragon capsules until mid-2018. Will they be ready to offer flights in 2019 particularly with the birth of additional issues? Elbon dubbed the latest move as “some insurance” in case something comes up in the development program. NASA’s space shuttle program ended in 2011, and since then it has had to depend on securing a spot inside the Soyuz spacecraft. This capsule has flown American astronauts to the ISS and back on numerous occasions, including Scott Kelly’s historic return to Earth last March after spending 340 days aboard the space observatory. NASA’s space ferrying deal with the Russian space agency translates to roughly $80 million for every seat on the rocket, which launches from Kazakhstan. Aligned with its long-term mission to enhance crew size on the ISS, NASA’s Commercial Crew Program seeks to restart manned launches from American soil in 2018. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | March 1, 2017
Tourists take pictures of a NASA sign at the Kennedy Space Center visitors complex in Cape Canaveral, Florida April 14, 2010. REUTERS/Carlos Barria CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (Reuters) - NASA will pay Boeing Co up to $373.5 million for rides to fly up to five astronauts to the International Space Station aboard Russian Soyuz capsules, the U.S. space agency said on Tuesday. The extra rides will allow the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to add a fourth U.S. astronaut to the six-member station crew more than a year ahead of schedule. Russia in April is reducing its crew from three to two. NASA also wants backup seats available to staff the space station in case of delays with U.S. commercial space taxis under development by Boeing and by Elon Musk’s Space Exploration Technologies Corp, known as SpaceX. NASA’s last contract with the Russian space agency for Soyuz seats, announced in August 2015, was for six seats covering flights through 2018, at a cost of $82 million apiece. Under the Boeing contract, the price falls to $74.7 million per person. NASA hired Boeing and SpaceX to fly crew members to the station, which orbits about 250 miles (400 km) above Earth, beginning in late 2018. However, the U.S. Government Accountability Office said earlier this month that both companies face technical hurdles which likely will delay their first crew ferry flights until 2019. The new agreement with Boeing provides NASA a seat for one astronaut in 2017 and one in 2018, with options for three more rides in 2019. Boeing obtained the seats as part of an unrelated settlement with Russia’s RSC Energia, which manufactures Soyuz capsules. Energia was the primary owner and Boeing’s partner in another space launch company known as Sea Launch. Since the U.S. retired the space shuttles in 2011, Russian Soyuz capsules are the only crew transportation services available.
News Article | February 28, 2017
NASA has agreed to fly at least two more astronauts on upcoming Russian Soyuz missions to the International Space Station, the space agency announced in a press release. The news comes in the wake of delays to NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, an initiative where two American companies — SpaceX and Boeing — are being paid to create spacecraft that can ferry astronauts to the ISS. Those flights were originally supposed to happen this year, but are now estimated to take place no earlier than 2019. The additional seats are being worked into an existing contract with Boeing, which helps operate the ISS. The agreement extension covers two seats on Soyuz flights this year and next year, and includes options for seats on three Soyuz flights in 2019. Boeing acquired theses seats from Russian aerospace company RSC Energia, and has been trying to sell them to NASA since January. The total cost of all five seats is $373.5 million, or $74.7 million per seat — a touch short of the $81.7 million NASA has been paying Roscosmos. Flights with SpaceX and Boeing should be cheaper than Russia — when they happen The US hasn’t had the capability to send its own astronauts to space (or bring them back) since the Space Shuttle program was discontinued in 2011. Private US spaceflight companies were growing at a rapid pace then, so NASA decided to fund these companies so they could become a sort of space taxi service for American astronauts. The Commercial Crew Program was intended to give NASA a cheaper alternative to Russia, but the program has been hampered by delays and cost issues. The space agency is also planning to fly astronauts on its own Orion spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) maybe as early as 2019, but that program has also been delayed. In 2015, NASA spent $490 million on six more Soyuz seats as a hedge against the possibility that the SpaceX and Boeing spacecraft wouldn’t be ready in time. Seats on the Soyuz are typically sorted out three years in advance when dealing directly with Roscosmos. (NASA was able to book the two new seats with less time since they had already been accounted for when they were bought by RSC Energia.) It was a prescient move because Boeing delayed — twice — the first crewed flight of its spacecraft, Starliner, in 2016. And SpaceX followed suit at the end of the year, saying in December that the human-rated version of its Dragon spacecraft wouldn’t fly with a crew until at least 2018. This is not the first time NASA has extended the contract with Russia Two weeks ago, the Government Accountability Office — a federal agency that performs audits for Congress — released a report that estimated SpaceX and Boeing won’t be ready to fly humans to space until 2019. The GAO cited concerns about a particular defect in SpaceX’s engine turbines, as well as Boeing’s reliance on Russian rocket engines as some of the reasons. NASA addressed the GAO report implicitly in the press release about the contract extension with Russia. “NASA’s Commercial crew transportation providers Boeing and SpaceX have made significant progress toward returning crew launches to the US, but external review groups have recommended an option to protect for delays or problems in certification,” the agency wrote. The contract extension with Russia was actually announced a week ago, and it was first spotted by SpaceNews, which points out the curious nature of how NASA quietly published the news. The agency is currently in a transitional phase as it waits for President Donald Trump to name a new NASA administrator. NASA is waiting for Trump to name a new administrator Robert Lightfoot, who is serving as acting administrator, recently sent a memo to NASA employees explaining his interest in accelerating NASA’s plans for human spaceflight. He asked for NASA and Lockheed Martin, which makes Orion and SLS, to evaluate whether it would be possible to put a crew on the first flight of that spaceship / rocket combination in 2018 instead of 2021. It’s a bold idea for a space agency that is known for caution, but it aligns with what we know the Trump administration wants out of NASA: an increased emphasis on human spaceflight and space exploration in general. “President Trump said in his inaugural address that we will ‘unlock the mysteries of space,’” Lightfoot wrote. “The SLS and Orion missions, coupled with those promised from record levels of private investment in space, will help put NASA and America in a position to unlock those mysteries and to ensure this nation’s world preeminence in exploring the cosmos.”
News Article | December 7, 2016
The spacecraft that returned Britain's first professional astronaut to Earth in June will land on display in London next year. Russia's Soyuz TMA-19M descent module, which touched down from the International Space Station with European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut and Expedition 46/47 flight engineer Tim Peake, will go on exhibit at the Science Museum, London in early 2017. "You do become very attached to your spacecraft because it definitely does save your life," said Peake in a statement released by the Science Museum Group on Monday (Dec. 5). "I'm absolutely delighted that my Soyuz spacecraft, the TMA-19M, is going to be returning here to the UK and may serve, hopefully, as [an] inspiration for our next generation of scientists and engineers." [Russia's Manned Soyuz Space Capsule Explained (Infographic)] The 1.7 ton (1.5 metric ton) capsule, which flew Peake and his two crewmates, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and U.S. astronaut Tim Kopra, to and from the station, was acquired by the Science Museum Group (SMG), which is responsible for several UK cultural institutions. "Russian ingenuity led to the birth of the space age," said Ian Blatchford, SMG's director. "Today it still plays a critical role, notably in long duration missions to pave the way for the next great leap into the cosmos." "It is a great honor to be here to officially acquire the first flown human spacecraft in the [SMG] collection, one which allowed Tim Peake to make his historic journey," he stated. Blatchford's signing of the acquisition agreement for Soyuz TMA-19M coincided with the 50th anniversary of the first Soyuz launch in 1966. The display of the Soyuz TMA-19M descent module builds on the Science Museum's recent exhibition, "Cosmonauts: Birth of the Space Age," which brought in 140,000 visitors, making it the museum's most popular exhibit in its history. "Cosmonauts" included the display of Soyuz TM-14, which flew the first mission to Russia's Mir space station after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1992. The exhibition, which ran from September 2015 to March 2016, also included the construction and display of a two-thirds scale replica of a Soyuz orbital module built entirely from a quarter of a million LEGO bricks. SMG acquired the Soyuz TM-19M from RSC Energia, the Russian contractor responsible for building the Soyuz and a partner in the "Cosmonauts" exhibition. "We're very honored that a descent vehicle produced by our corporation will take its rightful place in the collection of one of the most important science museum groups in the world," said Vladimir Soltnsev, general director of Energia. "I would like to hope that this special symbol of Russia will become one of the highlights of the Science Museum." Soyuz TMA-19M is the latest Russian spacecraft to land on display in the home country of one of its crew. In September, the Soyuz TMA-03M descent module, which landed with Dutch ESA astronaut André Kuipers from the International Space Station in 2012, debuted on display at Space Expo in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Similarly, the Soyuz capsules that returned U.S. space flight participants Charles Simonyi and Greg Olsen to Earth are exhibited in Seattle and New York City, respectively. Other astronauts' Soyuz capsules are on display in Cuba, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Poland, Romania and Vietnam.