Bangalore, India
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Kumar V.V.,RRDCH | Krishanappa S.J.,RRDCH | Prakash S.G.,RRDCH | Channabasaviah G.H.,RRDCH | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2016

Introduction: Angiogenesis is a fundamental process that affects physiologic reactions and pathological processes such as tumour development and metastasis. It is the process of formation of new microvessel from the preexisting vessels. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate angiogenesis, macrophage index and correlate the impact of macrophages on angiogenesis in the central and peripheral giant cell granulomas by evaluating immunohistochemically microvessel density, microvessel perimeter and macrophage index. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis was carried on 20 cases of central and peripheral giant cell granulomas each for CD34 and CD68 proteins expression. Inferential statistical analysis was performed using Independent student t-test to assess the microvessel density, microvessel perimeter and macrophage index on continuous scale between Group I and Group II. Level of significance was determined at 5%. Further bivariate analysis using Pearson correlation test was carried out to see the relationship between microvessel density and macrophage index in each group. Results: Microvessel density, micro vessel perimeter and macrophage index was higher in central giant cell granuloma compared to that of peripheral giant cell granuloma. Correlation between microvessel density and macrophage index among these two lesions was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Angiogenesis as well as the number of macrophages appeared to increase in Central Giant Cell Granuloma in present study. These findings suggest that macrophages may up regulate the angiogenesis in these giant cell granulomas and angiogenesis do have a role in clinical behaviour. However, we could not establish a positive correlation between microvessel density and macrophage index as the values were statistically insignificant. This insignificance may be presumed due to fewer samples taken for study. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

Christopher P.,TMDCH | Girish H.C.,RRDCH | Margod S.,RRDCH | Karnam S.,RRDCH | Devadoss P.R.,RRDCH
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2014

The human mouth is one of the main routes of entry into the body for foreign microorganisms. During the usual course of daily living the host may be invaded by microbes possessing various harmful qualities, or the host may acquire breaks in its defenses, or may undergo operative procedures. In these conditions, the microorganisms find themselves in inadequately protected tissues because of break in local barrier. As tissues are injured and microbes increase, a variety of signals in the host brings about mobilization and local accumulation of protective factors and these are generally sufficient to contain the pathogens, prevent their dissemination, and allow healing to proceed promptly. The purpose of this review is to study both innate and immunologicallymediated defense systems in the human mouth and to review extensively the functions of these various defense mechanisms in protecting the host from colonization with microorganisms and cancerous cells with particular emphasis on the oral cavity and its immediate surroundings.

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