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Esfahani M.H.N.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology | Tavalaee M.,Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine
International Journal of Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2012

Varicocele is considered as one of the main etiologies of male infertility. Along with altered semen parameters, increased DNA fragmentation is believed to play an important role in varicocele-induced infertility. DNA damage may result from intra- or extra-testicular factors. Among these, apoptosis, abnormal chromatin packaging and oxidative stress are the most researched and are addressed in this review. Significant evidence suggests that varicoceles have a harmful effect on testicular function and a varicocelectomy not only prevents progressive decline in testicular function, but also reverses the damage. However, the degree to which varicocele repair improves pregnancy rates and the success of assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains controversial. Therefore, the role of varicocele repair on DNA fragmentation is also discussed.

Hosseini S.M.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology | Nasr-Esfahani M.H.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2016

In October 2012, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and, in March 2012, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), lifted the categorization of oocyte cryopreservation as being "experimental" and endorsed its entrance into the mainstream of assisted reproductive techniques. This change in policy, with the considerable advantages that oocytes offer over embryos for cryopreservation, has increased applications of oocyte cryopreservation in assisted reproduction techniques. A deep understanding of oocyte cryobiology, however, is lagging behind the forces propelling the clinical application of oocyte cryopreservation. We have drawn attention to this shortcoming by initiating a debate on whether a vitrified-warmed oocyte has the same characteristics as its fresh sibling. The answer to this question may explain why the oocyte cryopreservation success rate is as yet far from satisfactory and why cryopreserved oocytes should be treated differently from their fresh siblings. A fresh look at the characteristic features of oocytes after cryopreservation is the main scope of this review as a stimulus to further improvement of oocyte cryopreservation. © 2015.

Honardoost M.A.,University of Isfahan | Kiani-Esfahani A.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology | Ghaedi K.,University of Isfahan | Ghaedi K.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

Background: Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory autoimmune disease widely characterized by myelin destruction of CNS. Th-17 cells, have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in pathogenesis of MS. MicroRNAs are a new class of non-coding RNAs that participate in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have reported a potential role of various miRNAs in induction of Th-17 differentiation and progress of autoimmune diseases. In recent years, it has been shown that miR-326 and miR-26a involved in progress of Th-17 and MS disease. Objective: To evaluate expression pattern of miR-326 and miR-26a in peripheral blood lymphocytes of relapsing-remitting MS patients during relapsing and remitting phases compared to healthy control subjects. Materials and methods: Forty RR-MS patients of Isfahan population were diagnosed as relapsing (n. = 20) or remitting phase (n. = 20) patients according to clinical manifests and expression level of miR-26a and miR-326 was measured in these groups by quantitative real time PCR method compared to 20 healthy controls. In-silico molecular signaling pathway enrichment analysis was also performed on validated and predicted targets (targetome) of miR-26a by DAVID database to explore possible role of miR-26a in Th17 differentiation. Results: We observed up-regulation of both miR-326 and miR-26a in relapsing phase of multiple sclerosis patients compared with remitting phase (p value. = 0.0001) and healthy controls (p value. = 0.0091). ROC curve analysis confirmed valuable and precise potential of miR-326 to discriminate between relapsing and remitting phases of multiple sclerosis with specificity and sensitivity of 100% at a proposed optimum cutoff point. Furthermore, in-silico molecular signaling pathway enrichment analysis detected TGF-β signaling pathway as one of the most statistically relevant pathway with miR-26a targetome. Conclusion: Our results confirmed potential of miR-326 as a diagnostic biomarker to discriminate between relapsing and remitting phases of multiple sclerosis disease. Similar expression pattern to miR-326 and in-silico molecular enrichment analysis altogether suggest an inducing role of miR-26a in differentiation of pathogenic Th17 cells during pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis by targeting major components of the TGF-β signaling pathway (i.e. SMAD4 and SMAD1) and disarrangement of this signaling pathway. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Khazaie Y.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology | Nasr Esfahani M.H.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology | Nasr Esfahani M.H.,Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center
International Journal of Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that are physiologically produced in eukaryotic cells to regulate or mostly down-regulate genes by pairing with their complementary base-sequence in related mRNA molecules in the cytoplasm. It has been reported that other than its function in many physiological cell processes, dysregulation of miRNAs plays a role in the development of many diseases. In this short review, the association between miRNAs and some male reproductive disorders is surveyed. Male factor Infertility is a devastating problem from which a notable percentage of couples suffer. However, the molecular mechanism of many infertility disorders has not been clearly elucidated. Since miRNAs have an important role in numerous biological cell processes and cellular dysfunctions, it is of interest to review the related literature on the role of miRNAs in the male reproductive organs. Aberrant expression of specific miRNAs is associated with certain male reproductive dysfunctions. For this reason, assessment of expression of such miRNAs may serve as a suitable molecular biomarker for diagnosis of those male infertility disorders. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the miRNAs' binding site in its targeted mRNA has been reported to have an association with idiopathic male infertility. Also, a relation with male infertility has been shown with SNP in the genes of the factors necessary for miRNA biogenesis. Therefore, focusing on the role of miRNAs in male reproductive disorders can further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and generate the potential for locating efficient biomarkers and therapeutic agents for these disorders.

Meamar R.,Islamic Azad University at Najafabad | Nasr-Esfahani M.H.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology | Mousavi S.A.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Basiri K.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons, characterized by progressive muscular atrophy and weakness which culminates in death within 2-5 years. Despite various hypotheses about the responsible mechanisms, the etiology of ALS remains incompletely understood. However, it has been recently postulated that stem cell therapy could potentially target several mechanisms responsible for the etiology of ALS and other nervous system disorders, and could be regarded as one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for ALS treatment. We present a brief review of different methods of stem cell therapy in ALS patients and discuss the results with different cell types and routes of administration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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