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Costley P.L.,Royal Womens Hospital
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The rate of operative deliveries (both caesarean sections, vacuum extractions and forceps), continues to rise throughout the world. These are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. The most common reasons for operative births in nulliparous women are labour dystocia (failure to progress), and non-reassuring fetal status. Epidural analgesia has been shown to slow the progress of labour, as well as increase the rate of instrumental deliveries. However, it is unclear whether the use of oxytocin in women with epidural analgesia results in a reduction in operative deliveries, and thereby reduces both maternal and fetal morbidity. To determine whether augmentation of women using epidural analgesia with oxytocin will decrease the incidence of operative deliveries and thereby reduce fetal and maternal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013). All published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared augmentation with oxytocin of women in spontaneous labour with epidural analgesia versus intent to manage expectantly were included. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.Cross-over study designs were unlikely to be relevant for this intervention, and we planned to exclude them if any were identified. We did not include results that were only available in published abstracts. The two review authors independently assessed for inclusion the 16 studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Both review authors independently assessed the risk of bias for each included study. Both review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included two studies, involving 319 women. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either of the primary outcomes of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 2.12) or instrumental delivery (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.08). Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any of the secondary outcomes for which data were available. This included Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (RR 3.06, 0.13 to 73.33), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.29 to 3.93), uterine hyperstimulation (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.80) and postpartum haemorrhage (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.58, 1.59). There was no statistically significant difference identified between women in spontaneous labour with epidural analgesia who were augmented with oxytocin, compared with those who received placebo. However, due to the limited number of women included in the studies, further research in the form of randomised controlled trials are required.


Gibson A.-M.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Doyle L.W.,Royal Womens Hospital | Doyle L.W.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2014

Extremely low birth weight (<1000g birth weight) or extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation) infants are surviving in greater numbers as neonatal care advances. Many of these survivors, especially those who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia, have more respiratory ill health in the first years after discharge home, reduced respiratory function and impaired exercise capacity throughout childhood and into adulthood compared with term-born controls. It is important to establish the long-term respiratory outcomes for the tiniest or most immature survivors as they grow older, since they may contribute disproportionately to rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory ill-health in adulthood. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wheeler K.,Royal Womens Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

Damage caused by lung overdistension (volutrauma) has been implicated in the development bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Modern neonatal ventilation modes can target a set tidal volume as an alternative to traditional pressure-limited ventilation using a fixed inflation pressure. Volume targeting aims to produce a more stable tidal volume in order to reduce lung damage and stabilise pCO(2) To determine whether volume-targeted ventilation (VTV) compared with pressure-limited ventilation (PLV) leads to reduced rates of death and BPD in newborn infants. Secondary objectives were to determine whether use of VTV affected outcomes including air leak, cranial ultrasound findings and neurodevelopment. The search strategy comprised searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE PubMed 1966 to January 2010, and hand searches of reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing the use of volume-targeted versus pressure-limited ventilation in infants of less than 28 days corrected age. Two review authors assessed the methodological quality of eligible trials and extracted data independently. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted to provide a pooled estimate of effect. For categorical data the relative risk (RR) and risk difference (RD) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Number needed to treat was calculated when RD was statistically significant. Continuous data were analysed using weighted mean difference. Twelve randomised trials met our inclusion criteria; nine parallel trials (629 infants) and three crossover trials (64 infants).The use of VTV modes resulted in a reduction in the combined outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia [typical RR 0.73 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93), NNT8 (95% CI 5 to 33)]. VTV modes also resulted in reductions in pneumothorax [typical RR 0.46 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.84), NNT 17 (95% CI 10 to 100)], days of ventilation [MD -2.36 (95% CI -3.9 to -0.8)], hypocarbia [typical RR 0.56 (95%CI 0.33 to 0.96), NNT 4 (95% CI 2 to 25)] and the combined outcome of periventricular leukomalacia or grade 3-4 intraventricular haemorrhage [typical RR 0.48 (95% CI 0.28 to 0.84), NNT 11 (95% CI 7 to 50)]. Infants ventilated using VTV modes had reduced death and chronic lung disease compared with infants ventilated using PLV modes. Further studies are needed to identify whether VTV modes improve neurodevelopmental outcomes and to compare and refine VTV strategies.


Cade T.J.,Royal Womens Hospital
International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society | Year: 2010

There has been an increasing interest in accurately assessing tumors preoperatively to plan appropriate surgery or, in some low-risk patients, conservative treatment. We wish to determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer and whether it is a safe and suitable tool for planning conservative treatment. We compared MRI scans and final histopathologic diagnoses of 111 patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma over a 6-year period at a major tertiary centre. Data were analyzed collectively and according to histological differentiation and types of MRI scans (1.5 vs 3 T). Outcomes were presence versus absence of myometrial invasion and recently revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA (up to 50% myometrial invasion) versus deep invasion. Magnetic resonance imaging had a high negative predictive value for the presence of deep invasion (87% overall and 95% for grade 1 disease). However, although the positive predictive value for the presence of any myometrial invasion was high, negative predictive values were poor (35% for all grades and 46% for grade 1). There was no difference between 1.5- and 3-T scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging is a suitable screening tool for the presence of stage IA disease under the newly revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system. The significance of this finding will depend on whether clinicians are willing to treat all grade 1 stage IA disease (under the revised system) as low risk and to deem selected patients in this group suitable for more conservative treatment.


Dennis A.T.,Royal Womens Hospital
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2011

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a powerful non-invasive diagnostic, monitoring and measurement device in medicine. In addition to cardiologists, many other specialised groups, including emergency and critical care physicians and cardiac anaesthetists, have recognised its ability to provide high quality information and utilise TTE in the care of their patients. In obstetric anaesthesia and management of obstetric critical illness, the favourable characteristics of pregnant women facilitate TTE examination. These include anterior and left lateral displacement of the heart, frequent employment of the left lateral tilted position to avoid aortocaval compression, spontaneous ventilation and wide acceptance of ultrasound technology by women. Of relevance to obstetric anaesthetists is that maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease is significant worldwide. This makes TTE an appropriate, important and applicable device in pregnant women. Clinician-performed TTE enables differentiation between the life-threatening causes of hypotension. In the critically ill woman this improves diagnostic accuracy and allows treatment interventions to be instituted and monitored at the point of patient care. This article outlines the application of TTE in the specialty of obstetric anaesthesia and in the management of obstetric critical illness. It describes the importance of TTE education, quality assurance and outcome recording. It also discusses how barriers to the routine implementation of TTE in obstetric anaesthesia and management of obstetric critical illness can be overcome. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hickey M.,Royal Womens Hospital
Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society | Year: 2012

Evaluation and management of anxiety and depression during the menopausal transition are complicated by the overlap between some symptoms of affective disorder with those of menopausal symptoms, and also by inconsistencies in the literature regarding the relationship between the menopausal transition and affective disorders. We have reviewed key studies over the past three decades addressing depression and anxiety during the menopause transition, in order to present a practical, clinical approach to the evaluation and management of anxiety and depressive symptoms at midlife. Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common at midlife and may coincide with menopausal symptoms. Some menopausal symptoms are also symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. Management should include treatment of troublesome menopausal symptoms, providing strategies to deal with psychosocial stressors, and exclusion of clinically significant anxiety and depressive disorders. Interventions such as exercise and cognitive behavior therapy may improve mood and general health at menopause, and a multifocal approach is recommended. Depression of greater than moderate severity requires treatment with an antidepressant. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors may also improve vasomotor symptoms and these should be considered in women with both affective disorder and vasomotor symptoms. There is no clear evidence that the menopause transition alone increases the risk of clinically significant affective disorders, except in women with risk factors such as psychosocial stressors, severe and prolonged vasomotor symptoms and a previous history of affective disorders. Nevertheless, anxiety and depression are common in women and clinicians should be alert to the symptoms of these conditions at all encounters.


Griffiths J.D.,Royal Womens Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms which are experienced commonly during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia and can also occur in the period following the procedure.  To assess the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions given prophylactically to prevent nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 February 2012) and reference lists of identified studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked.   Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria but only 41 studies, involving 5046 women, provided useable data for the review involving women having caesareans under regional anaesthesia. The majority of the studies involved women undergoing elective caesarean section. Only two studies included emergency surgery, however, they did not stratify data according to type of surgery. The studies covered numerous comparisons, but the majority of studies involved 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, dopamine receptor antagonists, corticosteroids or acupressure. Studies were mainly small and of unclear quality.Three classes of intervention were found to be effective in at least three out of four of our primary outcomes (intraoperative nausea, intraoperative vomiting, postoperative nausea and postoperative vomiting). These interventions were 5-HT(3) antagonists, dopamine antagonists and sedatives. Other classes of intervention were effective for fewer than three of our primary outcomes.With 5-HT antagonists, we found a reduction in intraoperative nausea (average risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.88, eight studies, 720 women). There were also reductions in postoperative nausea (average RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.64, four studies, 405 women) and vomiting (average RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.77, five studies, 565 women). We did not detect a significant reduction in intraoperative vomiting (average RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.00, seven studies, 668 women).Dopamine antagonists demonstrated a reduction in intraoperative nausea (average RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.57, nine studies, 636 women) and intraoperative vomiting (average 0.39, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.64, eight studies, 536 women), with similar reductions in postoperative nausea (average RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.91, five studies, 412 women) and vomiting (average RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.91, six studies, 472 women). These differences were observed with both metoclopramide and droperidol.Sedatives (most commonly propofol) demonstrated a reduction in intraoperative nausea (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.96, four studies, 285 women) and intraoperative vomiting (average RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.68, four studies, 285 women), also with a reduction in postoperative nausea (average RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.71, two studies 145 women) and vomiting (average RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.28, two studies, 145 women).Acupressure was found to be effective for intraoperative nausea (average RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90, six studies, 649 women) but not postoperative nausea (average RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.00, three studies, 429 women). Acupressure was not effective at reducing vomiting either intraoperatively (average RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.18, six studies, 649 women) or postoperatively (average RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.06, three studies, 429 women).Other effective intervention classes included corticosteroids, antihistamines, and anticholinergics.There were insufficient data to demonstrate any class of intervention was superior to another. There were no significant differences observed in the comparison of combined versus single interventions.Few studies assessed our secondary outcomes or the incidence of adverse effects. However, one study showed an increase in respiratory depression with sedation (midazolam) compared with dopamine antagonists. This review indicates that many different interventions have efficacy in preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. There is little evidence that combinations of treatment are better than single agents.


Dennis A.T.,Royal Womens Hospital | Castro J.M.,St Vincents Hospital
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2014

Peripartum heart failure due to preeclampsia or peripartum cardiomyopathy represents a significant global health issue. Transthoracic echocardiography enables differentiation of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, commonly observed in women with preeclampsia, from that with peripartum cardiomyopathy in which a reduced ejection fraction is more common. An understanding of the different definitions and diagnostic features of these two diseases, as well as accurate characterisation of the haemodynamics in preeclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy, allows clinicians to manage these conditions appropriately. This article outlines the echocardiographic differences between preeclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy, the likely mechanisms for heart failure in preeclampsia and the relevance of these differences to clinicians in relation to prevention and treatment. It also emphasises the importance of disease definitions as a key framework for the more consistent classification of the two diseases. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Keogh R.J.,Royal Womens Hospital | Keogh R.J.,University of Melbourne
Placenta | Year: 2010

Measuring trophoblast function involves performing end-point assays that represent the response at a single time point. New technology from Roche Applied Science enables continuous monitoring of cells in real-time using specialized culture dishes containing micro-electrodes. The xCELLigence System allows continuous measurement and quantification of cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion, thus creating a true picture of trophoblast function. Lag and log growth phases can be determined thus pinpointing optimal times to treat and harvest cells. Use of this system will provide valuable insights into trophoblast functions as well as the behaviour of other cell types found at the maternal-fetal interface. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Moorhead A.M.,Royal Womens Hospital
Breastfeeding review : professional publication of the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia | Year: 2011

Breastfeeding women with continuous burning nipple pain, often associated with post-feed radiating breast pain, may be diagnosed with nipple and breast Candida (thrush) infection. This project examined the efficacy of the three fuconazole capsule regime (one 150 mg capsule alternate days) and explored factors associated with longer courses of fluconazole. Women diagnosed with nipple and breast Candida and treated with oral fuconazole at a tertiary hospital (n = 96) were followed up until pain resolution. Women took between 1 and 29 fluconazole capsules, mean = 7.3, median = 6. The number of capsules was not related to socio-demographic or health characteristics of mothers or babies; women with more severe breast pain were more likely to take > 3 capsules than women with less severe breast pain. Only minor side-effects were reported. Most women require more than three capsules of fluconazole, but two-thirds of women will require six or less.

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