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Merrick S.,Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust
British Journal of Community Nursing | Year: 2014

Malnutrition in the UK is well documented and highlighted by the British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, who advocate the use of a screening tool to facilitate the identification and subsequent management of undernutrition. Nurses are ideally placed to support this process, but their role has many conflicting priorities. For nurses working in the community, there also exists the problem of identifying those who are at risk of undernutrition but remain unknown to nursing services. This article provides a review of malnutrition and nutrition screening and aims to promote a pragmatic approach to the identification and management of undernutrition in the community. The article concludes with a brief review of current opportunities for improving nutritional care in the community. © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd.

Arora S.,Imperial College London | Cox C.,Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust | Davies S.,Staffordshire University | Kassab E.,Imperial College London | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of an entire hospital simulation in imparting skills to expert healthcare providers, encompassing both retention and transfer to clinical practice. Background: Studies demonstrating the effectiveness of simulation do not concentrate upon expert multidisciplinary teams. Moreover, their focus is confined to a single clinical setting, thereby not considering the complex interactions across multiple hospital departments. Methods: A total of 288 participants (Attending surgeons, anesthesiologists, physicians, and nurses) completed this largest simulation study to date, set in the UK Defence Medical Services' Hospital Simulator and the conflict zone in Afghanistan. The simulator termed "Hospital Exercise" (HOSPEX) is a fully immersive live-in simulation experience that covers the entire environment of a military hospital with all departments. Participants undertook a 3-day training program within HOSPEX before deployment to war zones. Primary outcome measures were assessed with IMPAcT (the Imperial Military Personnel Assessment Tool). IMPAcT measures crisis management, trauma care, hospital environment, operational readiness, and transfer of skills to civilian practice. Reliability, skills learning, and retention in the conflict zone were assessed statistically. Results: Reliability in skills assessment was excellent (Cronbach α: nontechnical skills = 0.87-0.94; environment/patient skills = 0.83-0.95). Pre/post-HOSPEX comparisons revealed significant improvements in decision making (M = 4.98, SD = 1.20 to M = 5.39, SD = 0.91; P = 0.03), situational awareness (M = 5.44, SD = 1.04 to M = 5.74, SD = 0.92; P = 0.01), trauma care (M = 5.53, SD = 1.23 to M = 5.85, SD = 1.09; P = 0.05), and knowledge of hospital environment (M = 5.19, SD = 1.17 to M = 5.42, SD = 0.97; P = 0.04). No skills decayed over time when assessed several months later in the real conflict zone. All skills transferred to civilian clinical practice. Conclusions: This is the first study to describe the value of a full-hospital simulation across the entire patient pathway. Such macrosimulations may be the way forward for integrating the complex training needs of expert clinicians and testing organizational "fitness for purpose" of entire hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Eddison N.,Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust | Chockalingam N.,Staffordshire University
Prosthetics and Orthotics International | Year: 2013

Background: There are a wide variety of ankle foot orthoses used in clinical practice which are characterised by their design, the material used and the stiffness of that material. Changing any of these three components will alter the effect of the ankle foot orthosis on gait. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the available research on ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning on the gait characteristics of children with cerebral palsy through a structured review. Study Design: Literature review. Methods: A thorough search of previous studies published in English was conducted within all major databases using relevant phrases without any limits for the dates. These searches were then supplemented by tracking all key references from the appropriate articles identified including hand searching of published books where relevant. Results: To date, there are 947 papers in the literature pertaining to the study of ankle foot orthosis. Of these, 153 investigated the use of ankle foot orthosis for children with cerebral palsy. All the studies included in this review were of a within-subjects design and the evidence levels were generally low. Conclusions: The overall results suggested that ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning has the potential to improve the kinematics and kinetics of gait in children with cerebral palsy. However, the review highlights a lack of well-designed and adequately powered studies. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2012.

Hare J.,Staffordshire University | Clark-Carter D.,Staffordshire University | Forshaw M.,Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2014

BackgroundPeritoneal dialysis (PD) requires patients to take an active role in their adherence to fluid restrictions. Although fluid non-adherence had been identified among this patient group, no specific interventions have been researched or published with in the PD population. The current study sought to investigate whether an applied cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-based intervention) used among haemodialysis patients would improve fluid adherence among PD patients; utilizing clinical indicators used in practice.MethodsFifteen PD patients identified as fluid non-adherent were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) or a deferred-entry control group (CG). The study ran for a total of 21 weeks, with five data collection points; at baseline, post-intervention and at three follow-up points; providing a RCT phase and a combined longitudinal analysis phase. The content of the group intervention encompassed educational, cognitive and behavioural components, aimed to assist patients' self-management of fluid.ResultsNo significant differences in weight (kg) reduction were found in either phase and undesirable changes in blood pressure (BP) were observed. However, in the longitudinal phase, a statistically significant difference in oedematous status was observed at 6-week follow-up; which may be indicative of fluid adherence. Positive and significant differences were observed in the desired direction for measures of psychological well-being, quality of life and health beliefs; areas correlated with enhanced fluid adherence in other research.ConclusionsThis study reveals encouraging and significant changes in predictors of fluid adherence. Although there were no significant changes in weight as a crude clinical measure of fluid intake, significant reductions in oedematous status were observed as a consequence of this CBT-based group intervention. © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

Harvey P.R.,Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust | Holt A.,Staffordshire University | Nicholas J.,Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust | Dasgupta I.,NHS England
Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Introduction: Hypertension is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) blood pressure (BP) targets are pre-HD <140/90 mm Hg, post-HD <130/80 mm Hg. This study aims to assess 3-month mean inunit BP, pre- and post-HD, for correlations with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), a measure of long-term BP control. Methods: Of 648 HD patients, including those on HD >6 months, 262 had echocardiograms. Those with significant coronary artery disease, reduced ejection fraction or valvular disease were excluded, as were those without appropriate echocardiogram, leaving 100 patients. Data on BP and confounding factors for LVH were collected covering 3 months prior to echocardiogram. Results: Mean BP pre-HD was 147/77 ± 19/13 mm Hg, and post-HD, 133/71 ± 20/11 mm Hg; <50% of patients achieved NKF targets. Mean LVMI was 203.7 ± 74 g/m2; 88% of patients had LVH. On univariate analysis, mean pre- and post-HD systolic BP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and post-HD diastolic and pulse pressure correlated with LVMI. On stepwise multiple regression analysis only post-HD MAP correlated with LVMI (p=0.000047, r=0.395). Conclusions: We conclude that long-term averages of in-unit post-HD BP measurements are useful in assessing BP control and cardiovascular risk, especially in the absence of routine ambulatory or home BP monitoring. © 2012 Società Italiana di Nefrologia - ISSN 1121-8428.

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