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Phnom Penh, Cambodia

The Royal University of Fine Arts is a university in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Its origins date to the establishment of the École des Arts Cambodgiens in Phnom Penh in 1918. The school was closed by the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1980. Wikipedia.

Beavan N.,The New School | Hamilton D.,SUERC Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory | Sokha T.,Royal University of Fine Arts | Sayle K.,SUERC Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory
Radiocarbon | Year: 2015

The Cardamom Mountain Jar and Coffn burial site of Phnom Khnang Peung is the most extensive example of the distinctive burial ritual frst reported by Beavan et al. (2012a). The 40 intact Mae Nam Noi and late Angkorian-era ceramic jars used as burial vessels held a total of up to 152 individuals, representing the largest corpus of skeletal remains of any of the 10 known Jar and Coffn burial sites that have been discovered in the eastern ranges of the Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia. We report here on the radiocarbon dating of this site and notable burial phenomena, using a Bayesian approach to model the start and end date of activity as well as its overall span. The results of the dating and Bayesian analyses indicate that the Phnom Khnang Peung site’s earliest burials began cal AD 1420–1440 (95% probability). Interestingly, the concentration of burial activity spans only 15–45 years (95% probability), despite the large number of inhumations at the site. The14C chronology presented for the site places the Highland burial ritual coincident with a period of economic, political, and societal transformations in the lowland Angkorian polity, but the unique burial practice and trade relationships evidenced by the burial goods and maritime trade ware ceramics employed in the burial ritual suggest these Highland people were a culture apart from Angkorian cultural infuences. © 2015 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. Source

Maher L.,University of New South Wales | Mooney-Somers J.,University of New South Wales | Mooney-Somers J.,University of Sydney | Phlong P.,Royal University of Fine Arts | And 6 more authors.
Global Public Health | Year: 2013

Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Maher L.,University of New South Wales | Phlong P.,Royal University of Fine Arts | Mooney-Somers J.,University of New South Wales | Keo S.,Cambodian Womens Development Agency | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2011

Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSWs). Methods: We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15-29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results: Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a " power drug" (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among alternatives intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion: ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women's use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with sustainable alternatives for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Cagno S.,University of Antwerp | Nuyts G.,University of Antwerp | Bugani S.,University of Bologna | De Vis K.,Royal University of Fine Arts | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2011

The speed and effectiveness of a conservation treatment used for stained glass windows have been investigated. Dark-coloured Mn-rich stains can be found in the alteration layer of ancient glass artefacts and cause the surface to turn brown/black: this phenomenon is known as Mn-browning or Mn-staining. While in glass manganese is present in the +ii or +iii oxidation states, in the Mn-rich bodies, manganese is in a higher oxidation state (+iv). In restoration practice, mildly reducing solutions are employed to eliminate the dark colour and restore the clear appearance of the glass. In this paper the effectiveness and side effects of the use of hydroxylamine hydrochloride for this purpose are assessed. Archaeological fragments of stained glass windows, dated to the 14th century and originating from Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge (UK), were examined by means of synchrotron radiation (SR) based microscopic X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XANES) and microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) and with high resolution computed absorption tomography (μ-CT) before, during and after the treatment. The monitoring of the glass fragments during the treatment allows us to better understand the manner in which the process unfolds and its kinetics. The results obtained reveal that the hydroxylamine hydrochloride treatment is effective, but also that it has a number of unwanted side effects. These findings are useful for optimizing the time and other modalities of the Mn-reducing treatment as well as minimizing its unwanted results. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Demeter F.,CNRS Eco-anthropology and Ethnobiology | Patole-Edoumba E.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle de La Rochelle | Duringer P.,University of Strasbourg | Bacon A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 5 more authors.
Geoarchaeology | Year: 2010

In 1963, E. Saurin and J.-P. Carbonnel discovered the Sre Sbov site on an alluvial terrace of the Mekong River in central Cambodia. Saurin described a lithic typology dating to the Lower/Middle Pleistocene from this site. Although the original lithic assemblage has been lost, this typology has been used continuously as a reference by Southeast Asian prehistorians. In 2007, a Khmer-French team conducted excavations at Sre Sbov that yielded numerous pebbles and cobbles showing apparently convincing handmade removals, as Saurin had previously described. However, an in-depth study of this assemblage, combined with a geological survey of the area, led to the conclusion that the stones were, in fact, of natural origin, and that for this reason their typology should be disregarded. Using satellite imagery and geological surveys, we explain how such a misinterpretation may have occurred and define a "buffer zone," corresponding to the maximal extent of the proto-Mekong River, where fluvially reworked pebbles and cobbles resembling artifacts may be recovered. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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