Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Royal University of Fine Arts
Phnom Penh, Cambodia

The Royal University of Fine Arts is a university in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Its origins date to the establishment of the École des Arts Cambodgiens in Phnom Penh in 1918. The school was closed by the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1980. Wikipedia.

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Hamilton D.,SUERC Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory | Sokha T.,Royal University of Fine Arts | Sayle K.,SUERC Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory
Radiocarbon | Year: 2015

The Cardamom Mountain Jar and Coffn burial site of Phnom Khnang Peung is the most extensive example of the distinctive burial ritual frst reported by Beavan et al. (2012a). The 40 intact Mae Nam Noi and late Angkorian-era ceramic jars used as burial vessels held a total of up to 152 individuals, representing the largest corpus of skeletal remains of any of the 10 known Jar and Coffn burial sites that have been discovered in the eastern ranges of the Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia. We report here on the radiocarbon dating of this site and notable burial phenomena, using a Bayesian approach to model the start and end date of activity as well as its overall span. The results of the dating and Bayesian analyses indicate that the Phnom Khnang Peung site’s earliest burials began cal AD 1420–1440 (95% probability). Interestingly, the concentration of burial activity spans only 15–45 years (95% probability), despite the large number of inhumations at the site. The14C chronology presented for the site places the Highland burial ritual coincident with a period of economic, political, and societal transformations in the lowland Angkorian polity, but the unique burial practice and trade relationships evidenced by the burial goods and maritime trade ware ceramics employed in the burial ritual suggest these Highland people were a culture apart from Angkorian cultural infuences. © 2015 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Beavan N.,University of Otago | Halcrow S.,University of Otago | Mcfadgen B.,Victoria University of Wellington | Hamilton D.,SUERC Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory | And 10 more authors.
Radiocarbon | Year: 2012

We present the first radiocarbon dates from previously unrecorded, secondary burials in the Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia. The mortuary ritual incorporates nautical tradeware ceramic jars and log coffins fashioned from locally harvested trees as burial containers, which were set out on exposed rock ledges at 10 sites in the eastern Cardamom Massif. The suite of 28 14C ages from 4 of these sites (Khnorng Sroal, Phnom Pel, Damnak Samdech, and Khnang Tathan) provides the first estimation of the overall time depth of the practice. The most reliable calendar date ranges from the 4 sites reveals a high- land burial ritual unrelated to lowland Khmer culture that was practiced from cal AD 1395 to 1650. The time period is concurrent with the 15th century decline of Angkor as the capital of the Khmer kingdom and its demise about AD 1432, and the subsequent shift of power to new Mekong trade ports such as Phnom Penh, Udong, and Lovek. We discuss the Cardamom ritual relative to known funerary rituals of the pre to post-Angkorian periods, and to similar exposed jar and coffin burial rituals in Mainland and Island Southeast Asia. © 2012 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Jintrawet A.,Chiang Mai University | Saengchyosawat C.,Chiang Mai University | Onpraphai T.,Chiang Mai University | Ekasingh M.,Chiang Mai University | And 17 more authors.
Southeast Asian Studies | Year: 2012

This paper aims to introduce the Decision Support System (DSS), which is an area informatics approach to area studies, and the research network complex based on DSS’s application in Thailand. In particular, the paper presents and discusses current activities of the DSS research network at the national level in Thailand rather than being a theoretical and analytical study of the DSS mechanism or its cases. DSS has wide applications in Thailand, extending to various fields such as agricultural and natural resource management, economic and social management, historical and cultural preservation, and so on. DSS generally refers to a support system embedded into a computer system for providing intellectual resources with the appropriate numerical model necessary for decision making in production activities. Agricultural and natural resources have been the foundation of social and economic development in Thailand since the country’s first national plan in the 1960s. Decision making to maintain agricultural productivity as well as to protect natural resources requires well-integrated data sets. The Thailand Research Fund (TRF) established a DSS research and development network (TRF-DSS) in 2002 to help various research teams in Thailand develop DSS tools and components for addressing agricultural and natural resource management issues. Using a “systems” approach, the DSS framework allows researchers and users to identify and integrate key components as well as to define databases and model-base management systems. This paper focuses on the TRF-DSS research and development network, which consists of 12 universities, two line agencies in Thailand, and a line agency in Cambodia. During 2002–10, a total of 59 research projects were granted a budget allocation of 140.1 million baht, and a budget of 15.4 million baht was allocated to support activities of the network. In addition, 10 projects were funded to carry out postproject activities, with a total budget of 1.5 million baht. More than 20 DSS tools were developed and implemented by various users, ranging from policy makers to provincial and local government agencies engaged in short- and long-term planning and management. Most DSS tools were designed to allow the integration of biophysical and socioeconomic data as well as the decision support modules for alternatives evaluation and analysis. These approaches support the choices of dynamic simulation models as well as multi-criteria analyses for modelbase software development. They also allow users to evaluate various alternatives in agricultural and natural resource management. Networking is a powerful platform for DSS research and development and may be applied to other types of research and development agenda in Thailand, such as area study projects. DSS tools contribute to an understanding of sustainability of production systems against a background of climate change, poverty reduction, and food security. © Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.

Cagno S.,University of Antwerp | Nuyts G.,University of Antwerp | Bugani S.,University of Bologna | De Vis K.,Royal University of Fine Arts | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2011

The speed and effectiveness of a conservation treatment used for stained glass windows have been investigated. Dark-coloured Mn-rich stains can be found in the alteration layer of ancient glass artefacts and cause the surface to turn brown/black: this phenomenon is known as Mn-browning or Mn-staining. While in glass manganese is present in the +ii or +iii oxidation states, in the Mn-rich bodies, manganese is in a higher oxidation state (+iv). In restoration practice, mildly reducing solutions are employed to eliminate the dark colour and restore the clear appearance of the glass. In this paper the effectiveness and side effects of the use of hydroxylamine hydrochloride for this purpose are assessed. Archaeological fragments of stained glass windows, dated to the 14th century and originating from Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge (UK), were examined by means of synchrotron radiation (SR) based microscopic X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XANES) and microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) and with high resolution computed absorption tomography (μ-CT) before, during and after the treatment. The monitoring of the glass fragments during the treatment allows us to better understand the manner in which the process unfolds and its kinetics. The results obtained reveal that the hydroxylamine hydrochloride treatment is effective, but also that it has a number of unwanted side effects. These findings are useful for optimizing the time and other modalities of the Mn-reducing treatment as well as minimizing its unwanted results. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Maher L.,University of New South Wales | Mooney-Somers J.,University of New South Wales | Mooney-Somers J.,University of Sydney | Phlong P.,Royal University of Fine Arts | And 7 more authors.
Harm Reduction Journal | Year: 2011

Background: The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context.Methods: As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content.Results: The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI.Conclusions: Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions, supported by legal and policy reforms, designed to reduce the environmental risks of sex work in these settings. Future research should seek to investigate sex work venues as risk environments, explore the role of different business models in mediating these environments, and identify and quantify exposure to risk in different occupational settings. © 2011 Maher et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Demeter F.,CNRS Eco-anthropology and Ethnobiology | Patole-Edoumba E.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle de La Rochelle | Duringer P.,University of Strasbourg | Bacon A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 5 more authors.
Geoarchaeology | Year: 2010

In 1963, E. Saurin and J.-P. Carbonnel discovered the Sre Sbov site on an alluvial terrace of the Mekong River in central Cambodia. Saurin described a lithic typology dating to the Lower/Middle Pleistocene from this site. Although the original lithic assemblage has been lost, this typology has been used continuously as a reference by Southeast Asian prehistorians. In 2007, a Khmer-French team conducted excavations at Sre Sbov that yielded numerous pebbles and cobbles showing apparently convincing handmade removals, as Saurin had previously described. However, an in-depth study of this assemblage, combined with a geological survey of the area, led to the conclusion that the stones were, in fact, of natural origin, and that for this reason their typology should be disregarded. Using satellite imagery and geological surveys, we explain how such a misinterpretation may have occurred and define a "buffer zone," corresponding to the maximal extent of the proto-Mekong River, where fluvially reworked pebbles and cobbles resembling artifacts may be recovered. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Maher L.,University of New South Wales | Mooney-Somers J.,University of New South Wales | Mooney-Somers J.,University of Sydney | Phlong P.,Royal University of Fine Arts | And 6 more authors.
Global Public Health | Year: 2013

Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Page K.,University of California at San Francisco | Stein E.,University of California at San Francisco | Sansothy N.,National Center for HIV AIDS | Evans J.,University of California at San Francisco | And 8 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objectives: HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Setting: Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Participants: Women aged 15-29 years, reporting >2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3 months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. Primary outcomes: HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Results: Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25 years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% C116.5% to 29.7%). Conclusions: Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission.

Maher L.,University of New South Wales | Phlong P.,Royal University of Fine Arts | Mooney-Somers J.,University of New South Wales | Keo S.,Cambodian Womens Development Agency | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2011

Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSWs). Methods: We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15-29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results: Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a " power drug" (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among alternatives intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion: ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women's use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with sustainable alternatives for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | University of Sydney, University of California at San Francisco, University of New South Wales, University of New Mexico and Royal University of Fine Arts
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health and human rights | Year: 2015

While repressive laws and policies in relation to sex work have the potential to undermine HIV prevention efforts, empirical research on their interface has been lacking. In 2008, Cambodia introduced antitrafficking legislation ostensibly designed to suppress human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Based on empirical research with female sex workers, this article examines the impact of the new law on vulnerability to HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Following the introduction of the law, sex workers reported being displaced to streets and guesthouses, impacting their ability to negotiate safe sex and increasing exposure to violence. Disruption of peer networks and associated mobility also reduced access to outreach, condoms, and health care. Our results are consistent with a growing body of research which associates the violation of sex workers human rights with adverse public health outcomes. Despite the successes of the last decade, Cambodias AIDS epidemic remains volatile and the current legal environment has the potential to undermine prevention efforts by promoting stigma and discrimination, impeding prevention uptake and coverage, and increasing infections. Legal and policy responses which seek to protect the rights of the sexually exploited should not infringe the right to health of sex workers.

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