Pen M.,University of New England of Australia |
Savage D.B.,University of New England of Australia |
Nolan J.V.,University of New England of Australia |
Seng M.,Royal University of Agriculture
Animal Production Science | Year: 2013
The effect of supplementing a mixed rice straw and tropical grass diet with legume as a nitrogen (N) source on intake, digestibility, rumen ammonia and microbial protein production was evaluated in Bos indicus cattle. Four rumen-cannulated steers were used in a crossover design with two diets and two periods. The diets were T1 = 40% rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw + 60% grass (Brachiaria spp. cv. Mulato II hybrid) and T2 = 40% rice straw + 30% grass + 30% legume (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT 184) on DM basis. Supplementation with legume doubled (P < 0.01) rice straw and total N intake, and increased total DM intake by 32%. It did not affect the DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibility (P > 0.05) but did increase (P < 0.05) N digestibility. Faecal N and total N outputs from T2 cattle were higher (P < 0.05) than T1 cattle, but urinary N output did not differ between diets (P > 0.05). N retention in T2 cattle was improved by 83% (P < 0.05) compared with T1 cattle. Rumen ammonia concentration, microbial protein production and efficiency of microbial protein production were improved (P < 0.05) when the legume forage was included in the straw-grass diet. We conclude that when a mixed rice straw and fresh grass diet is supplemented with ∼30% legume (DM basis), significant improvements in DM and N intake can be achieved. Copyright © CSIRO 2013.
Maxwell T.W.,University of New England of Australia |
Songly Y.,Royal University of Agriculture |
Ung B.,Royal University of Agriculture |
Peou L.,Royal University of Agriculture |
Reid J.,University of New England of Australia
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2012
Agricultural innovations can create assets in poor rural communities but there are few studies of the wider, especially social, impact of such innovations. Farm families, previously engaged in "cut and carry" of wild forage, created time savings by their adoption of forage banks to feed cattle. What they did with this time was not known and this is the focus of this exploratory study as a result of the introduction of a "forage crop based production system" (FCP) in Cambodia. Based on interviews in two villages of farmers themselves and of teachers, the study confirmed that adopter farmers achieved considerable time savings, compared to non-adopters, resulting in agricultural, economic and cultural outcomes. Farmers reported better cattle production and grew cash crops while others developed local services. However, perhaps the major outcome was social, that is, their primary and secondary children's schooling. Parents reported children experienced time savings converted into considerably better attendance and less lateness. Teachers reportedly agreed and added better attitudes and progress. The results were achieved through a greater understanding of the farmer's relationship with project grass and legume growth and cattle management particularly during periods of feed deficit. Suggestions for further research are made. © 2011.
Nguon S.,Royal University of Agriculture
Chemotherapy | Year: 2014
Background: The anti-inflammatory drug diacetyl rhein has been found to possess promising antistaphylococcal effects against various drug-resistant strains in our previous study. In the present work, we explored the in vitro combinatory interactions of diacetyl rhein with oxacillin and tetracycline against 13 standard strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, including those resistant to erythromycin, methicillin and tetracycline. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay, and the effects of combinations were evaluated according to the sum of fractional inhibitory concentrations (ΣFICs). Results: Synergistic or additive effects were observed against all S. aureus strains (ΣFIC 0.258-1), whereas diacetyl rhein-oxacillin appeared to be the most effective combination, synergistically inhibiting the growth of 4 strains tested. Conclusion: To our best knowledge, this is the first report on a synergistic antibacterial effect of diacetyl rhein. Our results suggest this promising compound for further evaluation of its synergistic anti-infective potential as an agent with a combined anti-inflammatory and synergistic antibacterial action. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Phan K.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology |
Sthiannopkao S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology |
Kim K.-W.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology |
Wong M.H.,Hong Kong Baptist University |
And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2010
In order to compare the magnitudes and health impacts of arsenic and other toxic trace elements in well water, groundwater and hair samples were collected from three areas with different arsenic exposure scenarios in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Ampil commune in Kampong Cham province was selected as an uncontaminated area, Khsarch Andaet commune in Kratie province was selected as a moderately contaminated area, and Kampong Kong commune in Kandal Province was selected as an extremely contaminated area. Results of ICP-MS analyses of the groundwater samples revealed that As, Mn, Fe and Ba concentrations were significantly different among the three study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Out of 46 observed wells in the Kandal province study area, 100% detected As > 50 μg L-1 and Fe > 300 μg L-1; 52.17% had Mn > 400 μg L-1 and 73.91% found Ba > 700 μg L-1. In the Kratie province study area (n = 12), 25% of wells showed elevated arsenic levels above 10 μg L-1 and 25% had Mn > 400 μg L-1, whereas samples from Kampong Cham province study area (n = 18) were relatively clean, with As < 10 μg L-1. A health risk assessment model derived from the USEPA was applied to calculate individual risks resulting from drinking groundwater. Computational results indicated that residents from Kandal Province study area (n = 297) confronted significantly higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks than those in Kratie (n = 89) and Kampong Cham (n = 184) province study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). 98.65% of respondents from the Kandal province study area were at risk for the potential non-cancer effect and an average cancer risk index was found to be 5 in 1000 exposure. The calculations also indicated that, in the Kratie province study area, 13.48% of respondents were affected by non-cancer health risks and 33.71% were threatened by cancer, whereas none of respondents in the Kampong Cham province study area appeared to have non-carcinogenic effect. Positively significant correlations of the arsenic content in scalp hair (Ash) with both arsenic levels in groundwater (Asw) (rs (304) = 0.757, p < 0.0001) and individual average daily doses (ADD) of arsenic (rs (304) = 0.763, p < 0.0001) undoubtedly indicated that arsenic accumulation in the bodies of Cambodia residents in the Mekong River basin was mainly through a groundwater drinking pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report comparing individual health risk assessments of arsenic exposure through a groundwater drinking pathway to enriched arsenic levels from groundwater in the Mekong River basin, Cambodia. This study indicates that elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater may lead to thousands of cases of arsenicosis in the near future if mitigating actions are not taken. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Burbi S.,Resilience |
Baines R.N.,Royal University of Agriculture |
Conway J.S.,Royal University of Agriculture
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2016
This paper explores the potential for farmers’ engagement on the issues related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation in extensive low-input livestock farming systems. The framework used was based on Participatory Action Research. This involved integrating quantitative evidence on GHG emission impacts at the farm level and qualitative data on the obstacles to the adoption of innovation based on farmers’ perceptions and attitudes to climate change. The study aims at building social capital among 14 farmers in the South West and West Midlands regions in England, and it evaluates the potential for the adoption of emission mitigation strategies. The Rapid Farm Practices Appraisal (RFPA) tool was created to assess farm practices based on their mitigation potential. Practices were assessed twice over 6–9 months. Semi-structured interviews were used to assess barriers and opportunities to farmer engagement and on-farm innovation. Farmers were invited to a focus group meeting to network with other farmers and engage with researchers. All farmers participated in the 2 farm assessments, but only half the farmers adopted changes in farm management. All farmers appreciated the RFPA tool, the clearness of the information provided and the focus of the tool on practices directly. The main obstacles to innovation were limited financial capital, lack of trust in government action and confusion over the effectiveness of farm advice on mitigation. The lack of long-term flexibility of agricultural policies and the source of information greatly influenced the acceptance of advice. Results suggest the potential for the expansion of the RFPA tool to include economic assessment of farm practices and the engagement of a larger pool of farmers and farming systems. The tool could be used to support the GHG Action Plan and future environmental policies, and as an integrated self-assessment tool for farmers under Environmental Stewardship Schemes. © 2016 Taylor & Francis
Thiel F.,Royal University of Agriculture
ZFV - Zeitschrift fur Geodasie, Geoinformation und Landmanagement | Year: 2011
Following the Land Policy Declaration from July 2009, the Royal Government of Cambodia henceforth has the unique opportunity to implement a land valuation policy by the Council of Land Policy. Land valuation, taxation and capacity building are indispensable elements of a land reform in Cambodia. By improving prior assessment tools for valuation and taxation, Cambodia could serve as an example for the development of taxation in circumstances when rent-seeking, speculation, informal land markets and an unequal land distribution occur. Property taxation - eventually supported by land value increment taxation - will become an important future source of the Cambodian revenue. Taxation should be ideally flanked by a coded, transparent and upgradeable property record system, by actualized or revised land valuation manuals and a holistic land information infrastructure due to international standards.
Thiel F.,Royal University of Agriculture
Erdkunde | Year: 2010
This paper focuses on legal and economic instruments of the multi-donor-driven land reform in Cambodia with its overarching aim of achieving tenure security and reparation after the Khmer Rouge. Land tenure applies to state public/state private property and private property. The essential property form for public land management is state public property. This property must be interpreted in the future as the property of Cambodian people that serves all human beings in the country. Having a common, participatory and legally binding land use planning system for Cambodia, the planning authorities at the national down to the communal level are able to guide and to restrict the use of land in order to protect and promote the public interest. Private land use rights should not be mixed up with private property rights. Private land use under conditions of tenure security is far more efficient than state land use. Yet that does not automatically require private property. State public property with the guarantee for private land use, e.g. through transparent and participatory leasing and redistributed ground rents, ensures fair and equal redistribution of land if the Cambodian government enforces compliance with these regulations for the benefit of the local people.
Marcinakova M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences |
Klingberg T.D.,Royal University of Agriculture |
Laukova A.,Slovak Academy of Sciences |
Budde B.B.,Royal University of Agriculture
Anaerobe | Year: 2010
Examination of adhesion ability using a quantitative assay based on radiolabelled bacteria showed that 10 Enterococcus strains exhibited adhesion ability from 2 to 4%. Enterococcus faecium EF2019 (isolate from rabbit faeces, deponed to Czech Culture of Microorganisms in Brno, CCM 7420) showed the highest adhesion ability (4.0 ± 0.4%). With regard to survival, all strains displayed good resistance towards 0.3% oxgall and HCl (pH 3.0). Pretreatment of strains with HCl (pH 3.0) significantly reduced their adhesion. Pretreatment of strains by oxgall significantly reduced the adhesion capacity of E. faecium EF2019, EF1839 and EF319 strains, while the adhesion ability of E. faecium EE3 (isolate from canine feed) slightly increased. Furthermore, addition of calcium (200. mmol/l) significantly increased (P<0.001) the adhesion ability for all strains tested. The adhesion ability of the isolates from rabbits, EF1839 and EF529, as well as the isolate EE3 (strain from canine feed) increased from 2-3% up to 50-55% upon calcium addition. Despite, in general low adhesive properties, strains can survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
San V.,Royal University of Phnom Penh |
Spoann V.,Royal University of Phnom Penh |
Ly D.,Royal University of Agriculture |
Chheng N.V.,Royal University of Phnom Penh
Energy | Year: 2012
The study was carried out to explore fuelwood consumption rate for different activities, such as cooking, boiling water, preparing animal feed and burning to protect cattle against insects; species preference; and to examine the characteristics of cook stoves. Approximately 96% of sampled households depend on fuelwood as a primary source for cooking, boiling water, preparing animal feed and protecting cattle against insects. Average fuelwood consumption for cooking and boiling water in very large families is significantly higher than that with very small families. Overall average fuelwood consumption for cooking and boiling water per family per day is 5.21 ± 0.11 kg and 2.82 ± 0.11 kg. Households with a high number of cattle or pigs consume a higher amount of fuelwood for producing smoke to protect cattle against insects or preparing pig feed. The average fuelwood consumption rate is approximately 5.60 ± 0.11 kg day -1 family -1 for repelling insects to protect animals and 3.90 ± 0.19 kg day -1 family -1 for preparing pig feed. The most preferred species is Shorea obtusa followed by Dipterocarpus obtusifolius, Xylia xylocarpa, Cratoxylon prunifolium, and Dipterocarpus tuberculatus. Two models of improved cooking stoves (the New Lao Stove and the Korng Rey Stove) are the most frequently used stove type in the study area. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kang S.,Royal University of Agriculture |
Kang S.,Khon Kaen University |
Wanapat M.,Khon Kaen University |
Cherdthorng A.,Khon Kaen University
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014
Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers, two and a half year old with liveweight of 220 ± 15.0. kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the effect of banana flower powder (BAFLOP) supplementation as a rumen buffering agent on ruminal pH, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation fed a high-concentrate diet. The four dietary treatments were BAFLOP supplementation at 0, 10, 20 and 30. g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI), respectively. During the experimental periods, all steers were fed a diet containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 30:70 at 20. g DMI/kg of body weight and rice straw was used as a roughage source. Based on the present study, the results revealed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected (P>0.05) by BAFLOP supplementation, whereas digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber increased with the increasing levels of BAFLOP supplementation (P<0.05). It was also found that total nitrogen (N) intakes were similar among treatments. However, fecal N excretions decreased with the increasing levels of BAFLOP supplementation, while urinary N excretions were similar among treatments. BAFLOP supplementation increased N balance both absorption and retention (P<0.05). Moreover, purine derivative absorption and microbial protein synthesis were increased by BAFLOP supplementation, whereas efficiency of microbial nitrogen supply (EMNS) and microbial nitrogen supply were similar among treatments. In addition, ruminal temperature, ammonia nitrogen, and blood urea nitrogen were not influenced by BAFLOP supplementation, whilst ruminal pH enhanced (P<0.05) in steers supplemented with BAFLOP at 20 and 30. g/kg of DMI. The concentration of total volatile fatty acid and acetic acid increased with BAFLOP supplementation, whereas propionic and butyric acid remained the same. The present findings showed that BAFLOP supplementation enhanced total bacterial, protozoal, and cellulolytic bacterial growth, while numbers of fungal zoospores, amylolytic and proteolytic bacteria were similar among treatments. In conclusion, BAFLOP supplementation improved rumen ecology and nutrient digestibility by enhancing ruminal pH, nitrogen utilization, EMNS and ruminal microbial population. This study suggested that BAFLOP could be supplemented as a rumen buffering agent at 20-30. g/kg of DMI. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.