Royal Tropical Institute Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Kit

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Royal Tropical Institute Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Kit

Amsterdam, Netherlands
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Bertu W.J.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Gusi A.M.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Hassan M.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Mwankon E.,National Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

Purpose: Nigeria is the largest cattle-rearing nation in Africa with most animals kept under traditional husbandry practices. While bovine brucellosis does not receive much attention, a relatively high seroprevalence is found in samples submitted for laboratory testing. The aim of the study was to provide serological evidence of brucellosis in cattle from some of the main cattle-rearing states of the country and to validate a simple and rapid field test for the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Method: Serum samples collected in various states of Nigeria from cattle because of suspicion of brucellosis were investigated in the Rose Bengal plate test, and results were compared with a newly developed rapid field test for the detection of Brucella-specific antibodies. Results: Serological evidence for the presence of brucellosis in cattle was obtained for all states included in the study and a high herd prevalence was observed. The seroprevalence was also high among trade and slaughter animals. Results of a rapid field test for the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis correlated well with the Rose Bengal plate test (agreement, 95. 7%; kappa value, 0. 80). Conclusions: The results indicate that bovine brucellosis is an important veterinarian problem in Nigeria. The easy-to-use and robust field test is most promising for field-based surveillance as it provides an immediate result allowing the prompt instigation of control measures. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Nakhla I.,Us Naval Medical Research Unit No 3 | El Mohammady H.,Us Naval Medical Research Unit No 3 | Mansour A.,Us Naval Medical Research Unit No 3 | Klena J.D.,Us Naval Medical Research Unit No 3 | And 5 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2011

Laboratory confirmation of typhoid fever is essential for appropriate medical treatment. Blood culture is a standard test for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but well-equipped diagnostic facilities to perform culture are seldom available in endemic areas. We retrospectively compared 2 diagnostic field tests, a latex agglutination Dri-Dot assay and an IgM Lateral Flow assay, to blood culture, in patients with clinically diagnosed typhoid fever. Sensitivity of the Dri-Dot was 71.4%, and specificity was 86.3% for samples collected at time of first diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity of IgM Lateral Flow were 80% and 71.4%, respectively. A major limitation of these serologic tests is the limited sensitivity at the early stage of the disease. Performing both tests in parallel increased sensitivity to 84.3%, but decreased specificity to 70.5%. There was a trend towards improved diagnostic performance using either assay over a longer duration of illness. These rapid, point-of-care assays for typhoid fever provide easy-to-interpret results in typhoid-endemic countries and may be most useful in patients presenting 1 week after symptom onset. © 2011.

Mobaien A.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Hajiabdolbaghi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jafari S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Alipouran A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Micronutrients such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) have a modulatory effect on immune system. Altered serum concentrations of these nutrients have been described in patients with specific disease conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum Zn and Cu level alterations in patients with brucellosis in comparison with healthy individuals. Patients and methods: Serum Zn and Cu level of 43 patients with brucellosis (34 men and 9 women) were compared with 43 matched healthy controls. Serum micronutrient concentrations were measured by automatic absorptive spectrophotometry. Results: Mean serum Cu concentration was significantly higher in subjects with brucellosis when compared with agematched healthy controls (p<0.05). Mean serum Zn level was decreased in female patients compared with controls (p<0.05), however, there was no significant difference between male patients and controls. Conclusion: Serum Zn and Cu concentrations may alter in patients with brucellosis during the period of infection. Further studies are needed to determine whether these micronutrients have an effect on disease severity and outcome. Measuring serum Cu level may be suggested as a complementary screening tool for brucellosis. ©2010 IDTMRC.

Hatta M.,Hasanuddin University | Pastoor R.,Royal Tropical Institute Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Kit | Scheelbeek P.F.D.,Royal Tropical Institute Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Kit | Sultan A.R.,Hasanuddin University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control. © 2011 Hatta et al.

PubMed | Royal Tropical Institute Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Kit
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2011

During pregnancy, malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax is related to adverse maternal health and poor birth outcomes. Diagnosis of malaria, during pregnancy, is complicated by the absence or low parasite densities in peripheral blood. Diagnostic methods, other than microscopy, are needed for detection of placental malaria. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), detecting antigen, and molecular techniques (PCR), detecting DNA, for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infections in pregnancy was systematically reviewed.MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs, PCR, microscopy of peripheral and placental blood and placental histology for the detection of malaria infection (all species) in pregnant women.The results of 49 studies were analysed in metandi (Stata), of which the majority described P. falciparum infections. Although both placental and peripheral blood microscopy cannot reliably replace histology as a reference standard for placental P. falciparum infection, many studies compared RDTs and PCR to these tests. The proportion of microscopy positives in placental blood (sensitivity) detected by peripheral blood microscopy, RDTs and PCR are respectively 72% [95% CI 62-80], 81% [95% CI 55-93] and 94% [95% CI 86-98]. The proportion of placental blood microscopy negative women that were negative in peripheral blood microscopy, RDTs and PCR (specificity) are 98% [95% CI 95-99], 94% [95% CI 76-99] and 77% [95% CI 71-82]. Based on the current data, it was not possible to determine if the false positives in RDTs and PCR are caused by sequestered parasites in the placenta that are not detected by placental microscopy.The findings suggest that RDTs and PCR may have good performance characteristics to serve as alternatives for the diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy, besides any other limitations and practical considerations concerning the use of these tests. Nevertheless, more studies with placental histology as reference test are urgently required to reliably determine the accuracy of RDTs and PCR for the diagnosis of placental malaria. P. vivax-infections have been neglected in diagnostic test accuracy studies of malaria in pregnancy.

PubMed | Royal Tropical Institute Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Kit
Type: | Journal: BMC veterinary research | Year: 2013

Brucellosis is a major cause of infertility and reproductive failure in livestock. While cattle in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago suffers from reproductive problems information on bovine brucellosis in the region is fragmentary. The control of brucellosis requires a major and prolonged effort and confirmation of the infection by isolation with detailed knowledge of the spread of the infection is essential when planning a control program.Serological investigation of Brucella infection in beef cattle tended under extensive farming conditions revealed a high seroprevalence (19.3%; 95% CI, 17-22) in the compliment fixation tests. The results of a rapid and simple field test correlated well with the Rose Bengal test (kappa, 0.917) and indicated an acceptable sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (98.1%) compared with the complement fixation test. Reproductive failure was reported for 39.0% of the cows with a loss of calves due to abortion or early death amounting to 19.3%. Past reproductive failure did not, however, correlate with seropositivity in the complement fixation test (RP = 1.21; P = 0.847). B. abortus biovar 1 was freshly isolated from the hygromas of two cows and together with thirty banked isolates collected since 1990 from different parts of Sulawesi and Timor eight related genotypes could be distinguished with one genotype being identical to that of an isolate (BfR91) from Switzerland. The Indonesian genotypes formed together with BfR91 and one African and one North American isolate a distinct branch on the B. abortus biovar 1 dendogram.Bovine brucellosis appears to be widespread in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago and calls for urgent intervention. The fresh isolation of the pathogen together with the observed high seroprevalence demonstrates the presence and frequent exposure of cattle in the area to the pathogen. The application of a rapid and simple field test for brucellosis could be very useful for the quick screening of cattle at the pen side.

PubMed | Royal Tropical Institute Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Kit
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2014

Malaria still causes high morbidity and mortality around the world, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Community case management of malaria (CCMm) by community health workers (CHWs) is one of the strategies to combat the disease by increasing access to malaria treatment. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends to treat only confirmed malaria cases, rather than to give presumptive treatment.This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the success or failure of critical steps in CCMm with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).The databases of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the library of the Malaria in Pregnancy consortium, and Web of Science were used to find studies on CCMm with RDTs in SSA. Studies were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, subsequently risk of bias was assessed and data extracted.27 articles were included. CHWs were able to correctly perform RDTs, although specificity levels were variable. CHWs showed high adherence to test results, but in some studies a substantial group of RDT negatives received treatment. High risk of bias was found for morbidity and mortality studies, therefore, effects on morbidity and mortality could not be estimated. Uptake and acceptance by the community was high, however negative-tested patients did not always follow up referral advice. Drug or RDT stock-outs and limited information on CHW motivation are bottlenecks for sustainable implementation. RDT-based CCMm was found to be cost effective for the correct treatment of malaria in areas with low to medium malaria prevalence, but study designs were not optimal.Trained CHWs can deliver high quality care for malaria using RDTs. However, lower RDT specificity could lead to missed diagnoses of non-malarial causes of fever. Other threats for CCMm are non-adherence to negative test results and low referral completion. Integrated CCM may solve some of these issues. Unfortunately, morbidity and mortality are not adequately investigated. More information is needed about influencing sociocultural aspects, CHW motivation and stock supply.CCMm is generally well executed by CHWs, but there are several barriers for its success. Integrated CCM may overcome some of these barriers.

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