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Sousa S.,University of Porto | Lopes A.P.,University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro | Cardoso L.,University of Porto | Cardoso L.,University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica

Northeastern Portugal is a region where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic. In this study, a sero-epidemiological survey was conducted in 654 dogs from that geographical area. Serum samples were evaluated by the direct agglutination test (DAT) and also by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using five different defined antigens. Seroprevalence of infection was 21.3% based on the assumption that seropositive animals were positive for at least three tests. A high degree of agreement was found between DAT and LAM-ELISA (89%; kappa value [. κ] = 0.67). A statistically significant difference (p<. 0.05) of seropositivity was found between adult (23.4%) and juvenile dogs (12.2%), apparently healthy (14.8%) and sick dogs (40.2%), vaccinated (19.7%) and non-vaccinated (41.2%) animals, seropositive (26.9%) and seronegative (18.0%) for Toxoplasma gondii, living in rural (18.5%) or urban (32.6%) areas, and between animals living exclusively outdoors (18.2%) and those living in a mixed habitat (27.5%). Risk factors for canine Leishmania infection, as defined by multiple logistic regression analysis, were of clinical status (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1) and Toxoplasma infection (OR = 1.5). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Santarem N.,University of Porto | Silvestre R.,University of Porto | Cardoso L.,University of Porto | Cardoso L.,University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Accurate diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential toward a more efficient control of this zoonosis, but it remains problematic due to the high incidence of asymptomatic infections. In this study, we present data on the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based techniques for the detection of antibodies against the recombinant protein Leishmania infantum cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LicTXNPx) and a comparison of the results with those employing soluble Leishmania antigens from promastigote or amastigote forms and the homologue recombinant protein L. infantum mitochondrial TXNPx (LimTXNPx). Moreover, we offer an evaluation of the diagnostic potential of rK39 for CanL in the Portuguese canine population and propose an improvement to the existing ELISA-based serological techniques by combining the LicTXNPx and rK39 antigens as a Leishmania antigen mixture (LAM). The data demonstrated that ELISAs based on soluble promastigote or amastigote antigens had generally higher levels of sensitivity for detection of antibodies in symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs than for detection of those against isolated recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, the specificities were found to be similar for all target antigens used. Importantly, the LAM-ELISA methodology improved the overall sensitivity, maintaining a high overall level of specificity. In addition, it was demonstrated that the detection of anti-LAM IgG2 can increase the accuracy of the serological diagnosis. Overall, the obtained results showed that the strategy of combining two well-defined Leishmania antigens, LicTXNPx and rK39, proved to be a sensitive and specific improvement to current serological diagnosis of CanL, being a useful tool for the detection of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine Leishmania infection. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Kolk A.,Kit Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Royal Tropical Institute | Kolk A.,University of Amsterdam | Hoelscher M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Maboko L.,NIMR Mbeya Medical Research Programme | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

We investigated the potential of two different electronic noses (EN; code named "Rob" and "Walter") to differentiate between sputum headspace samples from tuberculosis (TB) patients and non-TB patients. Only samples from Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN)- and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive (TBPOS) sputum samples and ZN- and culture-negative (TBNEG) samples were used for headspace analysis; with EN Rob, we used 284 samples from TB suspects (56 TBPOS and 228 TBNEG samples), and with EN Walter, we used 323 samples from TB suspects (80 TBPOS and 243 TBNEG samples). The best results were obtained using advanced data extraction and linear discriminant function analysis, resulting in a sensitivity of 68%, a specificity of 69%, and an accuracy of 69% for EN Rob; for EN Walter, the results were 75%, 67%, and 69%, respectively. Further research is still required to improve the sensitivity and specificity by choosing more selective sensors and type of sampling technique. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Kolk A.H.J.,Kit Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Royal Tropical Institute | Kolk A.H.J.,University of Amsterdam | Dang N.A.,University of Amsterdam | Kuijper S.,Kit Koninklijk Instituut Voor Of Tropen Royal Tropical Institute | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source

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