Royal Thai Navy

Nakhon Thai, Thailand

Royal Thai Navy

Nakhon Thai, Thailand
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Wongwises P.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi | Vongvisessomjai S.,Team Consulting Engineering and Management Co. | Lueangaram W.,Royal Thai Navy
American Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Problem statement: A two-dimensional wave prediction model along the best track of Typhoon Linda 1997 was interested to study the impact of typhoon wind-wave characteristics. The dynamical wave model with deep water condition was used to predict the wave height (Hs) of Typhoon Linda before and after entering into the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). Approach: The standard one-way nested grid for a regional scale of the third generation WAve Model Cycle 4 (WAMC4) is scrutinized in the present study. This model is enabled to solve the spectral energy balance equation on a coarse resolution grid in order to produce boundary conditions for a small area by the nested grid technique along the best track of typhoon. The model takes full advantage of the fine resolution wind fields in space and time produced by the available US Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) model with 1° resolution. The nested grid application was developed in order to gradually increase the resolution from the open ocean towards the South China Sea (SCS) and the Gulf of Thailand (GoT) respectively. Results: The model results were predicted at five stations which were before and during the typhoon entering into the GoT. The wind speeds of the stations 1-5 were in ranges of 5.14-29.81, 4.11-28.27, 0.51-24.67, 0.51-31.35 and 0.51-33.41 m sec-1, respectively. While the Hs of these stations were found in ranges of 0.54-2.99, 0.68-2.85, 0.11-1.57, 0.12-2.92 and 0.09-2.76 m, respectively. The model results were compared with buoy observations at Ko-Chang and Rayong locations in the GoT which were obtained from the Seawatch project. The comparison of those results at Ko-Chang and Rayong showed the percentage errors of 11.20 and 15.12% respectively. Conclusion: The model results presented the relationship of typhoon wind-induced ocean wave at five stations along the best track. The tendency of the Hs from the model in the spherical coordinate propagation with deep water condition in the fine grid domain was in good agreement with the Hs from the observations. © 2010 Science Publications.

Intarapong P.,Chulalongkorn University | Iangthanarat S.,Chulalongkorn University | Phanthong P.,Chulalongkorn University | Luengnaruemitchai A.,Chulalongkorn University | Jai-In S.,Royal Thai Navy
Journal of Energy Chemistry | Year: 2013

The catalytic performance of KOH/mordenite has been studied for transesterification of palm oil using a batch reactor and a packed-bed reactor at 60 C and atmospheric pressure. The KOH/mordenite processed transesterification in the batch reactor gave the highest methyl ester yield of 96.7% under optimum conditions, while a methyl ester content over 94.5% was obtained in the packed-bed reactor. This comparison indicates that transesterification in a batch-type reactor gives a higher methyl ester yield than that of a continuous-flow reactor. Dealumination was found in the calcined catalysts and had a significant effect on the physical structure and chemical composition of the catalysts. Leaching of the potassium species was negligible, whereas depositing and washing of the reacted mixture with acetone on the catalyst surface were observed by FTIR. © 2013 Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Intarapong P.,Chulalongkorn University | Jindavat C.,Chulalongkorn University | Luengnaruemitchai A.,Chulalongkorn University | Jai-In S.,Royal Thai Navy
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2014

In this study, KOH/bentonite catalysts, prepared by the impregnation method, were studied for transesterification in a continuous reactor. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/ desorption, CO2 temperature programmed desorption, and X-ray fluorescence. The results showed that the addition of 20 wt% K on the bentonite catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio of 15:1, and flow rate of 0.3 ml/min gave a biodiesel content exceeding 75%. With increasing basicity, the presence of K2O was observed, and the biodiesel content was improved. In addition, there was negligible loss in activity when the catalyst was operated at 60°C for 7 days. A minimum level of potassium leaching on the 20 wt% K/bentonite was observed during the run. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Choeysakul C.,Curtin University Australia | Schlagenhaufer F.,Curtin University Australia | Rattanakreep P.,Royal Thai Navy | Hall P.,Curtin University Australia
Proceedings of the 20th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communication, APCC 2014 | Year: 2015

Electrical and electronic equipment installed on military platforms must have very low electromagnetic emission and good immunity for the whole operational frequency range. Reverberation Chambers (RC) are tools for sensitive emission measurements and immunity tests against strong electromagnetic fields, at a lower cost than other techniques. Method of RC should be suitable for testing Military's electronic devices such as radio or radar system. However, RCs must be large for tests at low frequencies; for example, at 80 MHz are conventional RC must have dimensions up to 7 m by 15 m by 8 m. For military concern, the lowest operation frequency can be as low as 2 MHz (underwater communication can be lower). Conventional RCs can only be used above a certain frequency, the lowest usable frequency (LUF), as they require a minimum mode density (number of modes per frequency interval) in order for the stirrer to perform effectively and alter field distributions. Technique of MIMO RC [1, 2] can make RCs usable down to much lower frequencies; it can mean the dimensions of the chamber can be up to 6 times smaller. However, the composite Q-factor of RCs can be rather low at low frequencies, and this affects the sensitivity, and ultimately usability of an RC. This paper studies the possibility to increase composite Q-factor when RC is used at lower frequencies than conventional method. © 2014 IEEE.

Intarapong P.,Chulalongkorn University | Luengnaruemitchai A.,Chulalongkorn University | Jai-In S.,Royal Thai Navy
International Journal of Renewable Energy Research | Year: 2011

The transesterification of palm oil to methyl ester was investigated on a KOH/NaY catalyst using a packed-bed reactor. The KOH/NaY was characterized by using XRD, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, SEM with EDS, CO2-TPD, and XRF. It was found that the KOH/NaY created strong basic sites, and the agglomeration was greatly increased by increasing the potassium content. The 15 wt % K/NaY exhibited good activity and the yield of FAME reached 92.18 % at 60 °C for 7 h. Additionally, the reusability of the catalyst was tested in order to observe deactivation of the catalyst from potassium leaching.

News Article | January 19, 2016

A fisherman travels with his boat at sunset in Bang Pu seaside resort in Samut Prakan province on the outskirt of Bangkok, Thailand, January 6, 2016. Thailand, the world's third-largest exporter of seafood, faces the risk of the ban after the European Union gave it a "yellow card" in April for failing to clamp down on problems in its fishing industry. An EU dialogue mission to assess progress is set for Thursday and Friday but a technical team has already arrived, the government said. The team is monitoring Thailand's progress after it set up a center last year to combat illegal fishing, said Vice Admiral Jumpol Lumpiganon, a spokesman for the Royal Thai Navy. "Once they are satisfied they will go back and make a decision," he said, adding that there was no timeframe for the decision. The technical team would conduct random checks until the rest of the EU officials arrived on Wednesday, he said. Last week the government said Thailand had completed "70 percent of the task" set out by the EU, after having registered most of its fishing vessels and caught groups suspected of human trafficking in the fishing sector. Deputy Prime Minister Prawit Wongsuwan said Thailand had introduced new laws to avert an EU ban. "There has been huge progress, because we have solved many problems in terms of the law, and its application," he told reporters. "Whether they are satisfied or not we will have to see, we've done our utmost." The EU declined comment, citing the confidential nature of meetings between its officials and Thai authorities.

News Article | January 14, 2016

Police officers stand on a fishing boat during a police inspection at the pier of Songkhla, south Thailand December 23, 2015. A police officer looks at an exhibition before a news conference on Thailand's Progress in Combating IUU Fishing at Government House in Bangkok, Thailand, January 14, 2016. Vice Admiral Jumpol Lumpiganon, Deputy Chief of Staff and spokesman for the Royal Thai Navy speaks during a news conference on Thailand's Progress in Combating IUU Fishing at Government House in Bangkok, Thailand, January 14, 2016. A man looks at an exhibition next to a model of a fishing boat before a news conference on Thailand's Progress in Combating IUU Fishing at Government House in Bangkok, Thailand, January 14, 2016. Thailand, the world's third-largest seafood exporter, faces a ban after the EU issued the country a "yellow card" in April for failing to crack down on illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Last month, Thailand said its seafood exports to Europe, the United States and Australia had not been hit by reports of slavery by campaign groups and media. At a news conference attended by the navy, labor and foreign affairs ministries, authorities said Thailand had registered most of its fishing vessels and caught groups suspected of human trafficking offences in the fishing sector. "We have completed 70 percent of the task," said Vice Admiral Jumpol Lumpiganon, deputy chief of staff for the Royal Thai Navy. National police said 35 groups suspected of involvement in human trafficking in the fishing industry and 73 individuals had been apprehended since April. Iris Petsa, Press Officer for Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries at the European Commission, said the EU could not comment on what was said by the Thai authorities. "Indeed the delegation is going to Thailand next week and the delegation will have to come back and make an assessment. I cannot give a time-frame on when that decision will be made," Petsa told Reuters by telephone from Brussels. Thailand's annual exports to the EU are estimated to be worth between 575 million to 730 million euros ($641 million to $813 million). The government has said it is confident exports won't be banned. Sompong Srakaew, director of the Thailand-based Labour Rights Promotion Network which works with Thai and migrant workers in the fishing sector, said not all issues had been resolved and the government needs to take a long-term view. "The government mustn't take a short-term view just to meet the EU's targets," said Sompong. "Some progress has been made but the law will need to be enforced both in terms of monitoring vessels and also workers in the fishing sector."

News Article | December 15, 2016

An international crackdown on human rights abuses in the Thai fishing industry has resulted in vessels travelling thousands of miles further into remote and lawless waters, where trafficked men continue to be beaten and sold at sea, a 12-month Greenpeace investigation alleges. According to the report, published on Thursday, seafood caught by such vessels is largely illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) and has entered the supply chains of multiple companies producing food for global export, including to the UK, in clear violation of international labour, supply and fishing codes. The allegations are likely to heap further pressure on Thailand’s $6.5bn (£5.1bn) seafood export industry – the fourth largest in the world, according to the most recent figures – which has suffered significantly over the past few years following allegations of human rights, labour and IUU fishing abuses both at sea and on land. Thailand was given a “yellow card” warning by the EU last year to clean up or face a ban on EU imports. “For some years there’s been a growing awareness of the endemic labour rights issues in the Thai seafood industry, which companies have repeatedly brushed under the carpet,” said Will McCallum, head of oceans at Greenpeace. “There can no longer be unsubstantiated assurances of workers’ rights while companies continue to profit from turning a blind eye.” Depleted seafood stocks in the Gulf of Thailand have encouraged Thai vessels to explore neighbouring waters off the coasts of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, often using fake permits and ghost fleets to avoid inspection by authorities. But a new government policy to sink vessels caught fishing illegally in Indonesian waters has forced such boats into less policed waters off Papua New Guinea’s southern “dog leg” region, Greenpeace claims. The report alleges that, when authorities also began clamping down on IUU fishing in Papua New Guinea, Thai vessels sailed out to the isolated, bio-diverse Saya de Malha bank off the eastern coast of mainland Africa, more than 7,000km from home ports in Thailand. Here, on large refrigerated vessels known as “reefers”, Thai captains have engaged in a fishing frenzy over the past 18 months. Located north-east of Madagascar, Saya de Malha is the world’s largest submerged bank and part of an underwater ridge that connects Mauritius with the Seychelles. The shallow tropical marine system – roughly the size of Belgium – is not adequately policed by either country, however, allowing human rights and fishing abuses to continue at large, the report claims. Beyond the view of authorities, Thai captains abuse, beat and traffic fishermen from boat to boat in the seafood-rich waters, Greenpeace alleges, despite the government’s legislative efforts to curb both IUU fishing and human rights abuses at sea. The vessels catch a variety of species including snapper, bream, rays, shark, mackerel and tuna, which Greenpeace claims are likely to have ended up in European, North American and Asia Pacific supermarkets and restaurants in the form of surimi, imitation crabmeat and pet food. Survivors who had been on board these reefers told Greenpeace that daily beatings were part and parcel of everyday life, and that many had given up hope of ever getting off the boats alive. “We were kicked, punched and beaten with sticks,” one survivor told Greenpeace. “Once, one of the Thai crew was forced to the floor of the deck while the captain stepped on his face. About 10 minutes later, the engineer beat the man until his face was swollen, and threatened to throw him into the sea.” Another survivor said: “Working on a boat faced with violence and abuse, in the middle of the ocean where you couldn’t even see the shore … it seemed like there was no future at all.” With the reefers spending months and sometimes years at sea, and solely reliant on trans-shipments every 90 days to receive food supplies, fishermen have been exposed to beriberi, a preventable disease caused by vitamin B1 deficiency that was common in the 19th century. Beriberi was responsible for the hospitalisation and death of a number of Cambodian and Thai fishermen earlier this year who had been aboard a Saya de Malha reefer for nine months continuously. According to a 2016 Thai government report, nearly half of the 1,000 fishermen on 50 vessels in Saya de Malha bank were working in violation of immigration and labour laws, Greenpeace claims. Interviews with fishermen on board tuna gillnetters – which had also been operating in the bank – revealed that the men had been trafficked on to the boats after being told they would be employed at an on-shore fish processing factory, working eight-hour days with food and clothing provided. Instead, the report claims, the men worked 20-hour days, seven days a week, and were told they could only leave the vessels once they had paid back the 30,000 baht (£660) for which the captains had bought them. Some fishermen had been at sea for as long as five years, the report says. Steve Trent of the Environmental Justice Foundation said the findings demonstrated how little Thai vessels had applied basic international labour standards. “Vessels fishing thousands of miles from their home country are inherently risky and difficult to control and it is essential that Thailand pays particular attention to them,” Trent said. “They must ensure that vessels have observers, are tracked 24/7 by satellite, and are inspected regularly, with attention paid to both fisheries and labour standards. To prevent illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, Thailand should only allow vessels to fish in areas where there is a science-based, robust fisheries management regime in place.” The report also alleges that the Royal Thai Navy has failed to adequately identify and protect potential trafficking victims, despite an increase in the number of inspections in recent years. In January, Greenpeace directly observed inter-agency inspections of vessels returning from Saya de Malha bank. Crew members reported that they had not been paid in years, that none of the 57 migrant crew were in possession of correct work permits, and that many had paid extortionate recruitment fees, yet Thai authorities cleared the vessels to return to port, Greenpeace claims. More than 70% of all known Thai-owned reefers, claims Greenpeace, have at some point operated in areas with “dirty” fishing operations, many of which are family business groupings with interests across the entire seafood supply chain and, in some cases, even politics. Despite the Thai government’s public interest in addressing problems in the seafood sector, much more needs to be done to reform the industry, as well as police activity at sea, said McCallum. “Greenpeace is in active discussions with the Royal Thai Government about this issue,” he said. “However, implementation and monitoring will need to be in place over a longer period before we can see the fruits of action. “One crucial issue which needs to be urgently addressed is the practice of trans-shipment at sea. This allows fishing vessels to remain indefinitely out in the ocean, where monitoring, control and surveillance are limited to non-existent. Greenpeace is urging a moratorium on at-sea trans-shipments for the Thai fleet.”

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