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Williams A.J.,Royal Society of Chemistry
Journal of Cheminformatics | Year: 2012

The International Chemical Identifier (InChI) has had a dramatic impact on providing a means by which to deduplicate, validate and link together chemical compounds and related information across databases. Its influence has been especially valuable as the internet has exploded in terms of the amount of chemistry related information available online. This thematic issue aggregates a number of contributions demonstrating the value of InChI as an enabling technology in the world of cheminformatics and its continuing value for linking chemistry data. © 2012 Williams; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd.


Woolfe M.,Royal Society of Chemistry
Analytical Methods | Year: 2014

The Analytical Methods Committee has received and approved the following report from the Nitrogen Factors Sub-Committee. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Woolfe M.,Royal Society of Chemistry
Analytical Methods | Year: 2014

The Analytical Methods Committee has received and approved the following report from the Nitrogen Factors Sub-Committee. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Woolfe M.,Royal Society of Chemistry
Analytical Methods | Year: 2014

Skinless chicken breast is the most used portion in the manufacture of chicken products and in catering. There is a large trade in chicken breast preparations (injected and tumbled with water and water retaining agents) for the catering trade, which are produced in the Netherlands, Poland and some in the UK. The last AMC study to determine nitrogen factors for chicken (whole chicken, breast, leg etc.) was funded by MAFF and published in 2000. The nitrogen factor for skinless chicken breast was central to uncovering misdescription and mislabelling in the chicken preparation market. The European Commission (DG-AGRI) funded a recent project (project 30-CE-0460798/00-25) to re-assess the physiological water content of skinless chicken breast and skin-on legs. Samples of skinless chicken breast and skin-on legs from Ross and Cobb breeds, male and female, light and heavy broilers were collected from each of the seven main poultry producing countries (UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and Poland). The new breeds of Ross (308) and Cobb (500) have shorter rearing times to reach killing weights than the breeds used in the 2000 AMC study. As the birds now used by industry are younger, the nitrogen factor may have also changed. Eighty four samples of homogenised chicken breast from the European Commission study were selected from the 144 UK, Polish and Dutch breast samples, as these three countries were considered the most important for the UK market. The samples were analysed for their ash, fat, and hydroxyproline contents, with the moisture and nitrogen results taken from the European Commission study. The results indicated that the average fat content was slightly lower than in the 2000 study (1.5 g/100 g instead of 2.0 g/100 g), as was the hydroxyproline content (0.05 g/100 g instead of 0.08 g/100 g). As the fat and ash contents were low, it was decided that the nitrogen factor could be calculated using the nitrogen results of all 144 breast samples from the UK, Poland and the Netherlands determined in the European Commission study. The results indicated that the main differences in nitrogen content from the 2000 study were with the chicken breasts from the heavy male birds, which were signicantly lower than the previous study. Also in this study, chicken breasts from the heavy male birds were also signicantly lower in nitrogen than those from lighter males or the light or heavy female birds. The average nitrogen content of all broilers is 3.70 g/100 g with a standard error of the mean of 0.02. Where the raw material of a product is known to be skinless chicken breast, a fat-free nitrogen factor for skinless chicken breast of 3.75 is recommended. This value has been calculated from an average fat content of 1.5 g/100 g, rounded to the nearest 0.05 and compares to the recommended fat-free factor in the 2000 study for skinless chicken breast of 3.85, which represents a 3% difference. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.


Elyashberg M.,Advanced Chemistry Development | Williams A.J.,Royal Society of Chemistry | Blinov K.,Advanced Chemistry Development
Natural Product Reports | Year: 2010

It is shown in this review that the application of an expert system for the purpose of computer-assisted structure elucidation allows the researcher to avoid the production of incorrect structural hypotheses, and also to evaluate the reliability of suggested structures. Many examples of structure revision using CASE methods are given. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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