Wilmshurst P.T.,The Royal Shrewsbury Hospital |
Morrison W.L.,Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital |
Walsh K.P.,Our Ladys Hospital For Sick Children |
Pearson M.J.,The Royal Shrewsbury Hospital |
Nightingale S.,The Royal Shrewsbury Hospital
Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine | Year: 2015
Introduction: Decompression illness (DCI) is associated with a right-to-left shunt, such as persistent foramen ovale (PFO), atrial septal defect (ASD) and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. About one-quarter of the population have a PFO, but considerably less than one-quarter of divers suffer DCI. Our aim was to determine whether shunt-related DCI occurs mainly or entirely in divers with the largest diameter atrial defects. Methods: Case control comparison of diameters of atrial defects (PFO and ASD) in 200 consecutive divers who had transcatheter closure of an atrial defect following shunt-related DCI and in an historic group of 263 individuals in whom PFO diameter was measured at post-mortem examination. Results: In the divers who had experienced DCI, the median atrial defect diameter was 10 mm and the mean (standard deviation) was 9.9 (3.6) mm. Among those in the general population who had a PFO, the median diameter was 5 mm and mean was 4.9 (2.6) mm. The difference between the two groups was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Of divers with shuntrelated DCI, 101 (50.5%) had an atrial defect 10 mm diameter or larger, but only 1.3% of the general population studied had a PFO that was 10 mm diameter of larger. Conclusions: The risk of a diver suffering DCI is related to the size of the atrial defect rather than just the presence of a defect. © 2015, South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society. All rights reserved.
PubMed | The Royal Shrewsbury Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Injury | Year: 2011
The outcome of patients with a displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture treated non-operatively was assessed at 1 year and compared with patients managed operatively over the same time period. Data were collected prospectively for 102 consecutive patients. 80 patients underwent hemiarthroplasty and 22 were managed non-operatively. Patients were managed non-operatively if they were felt to have an unacceptably high risk of death within the perioperative period despite medical optimisation. Non-operative management entailed active early mobilisation without bed rest or traction. Patients managed non-operatively had a greater 30-day mortality compared with operatively managed patients. Deaths were due to pre-existing medical conditions or events, which had occurred at the time of hip fracture. No patient in the non-operative treatment group developed pneumonia, pressure sores or thrombo-embolic events. Patients treated non-operatively, who survived 30 days after fracture, had a mortality rate over the following year comparable with those who had undergone surgery. At 1 year, all non-operatively managed patients were able to transfer without pain and 6 of the 11 surviving patients were able to mobilise with walking aids. At 1 year, the majority of surviving non-operatively managed patients were living in their own homes. Surgical intervention is the treatment of choice for the majority of elderly patients with a displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture. However, in patients with life-threatening medical co-morbidity, non-operative treatment with early mobilisation can yield acceptable results.