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Pearson M.J.,University of Birmingham | Williams R.L.,University of Birmingham | Floyd H.,University of Birmingham | Bodansky D.,University of Birmingham | And 3 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2015

Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy-based metal-on-metal prostheses have been the implant of choice for total hip replacement in younger patients. However 6.2% of patients require revision of their CoCrMo total hip replacement (THR) implant within five years of surgery and their use was restricted in 2013. We aimed to determine if there were individual differences in the immune response to wear debris that might indicate a poor outcome with a CoCrMo prosthesis.Blood from 22 donors was incubated with CoCrMo particles (>99.9% less than 10 μm diameter) generated by a wear simulator for 24 h. T cell phenotype was assessed by immunostaining and secretion of 8 different pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was measured using multiplex technology. Clear differences were seen between individuals in the induction of Th17 and Th1 responses, with some donors showing pro-inflammatory responses (increased IL17 or IFNγ) and others showing anti-inflammatory responses (decreased IL17 or IFNγ). The only differences seen for gender and age related to increased IL-10 expression from T cells in females (p = 0.008) and a trend towards decreased IL-6 expression systemically for older donors (p = 0.058).We conclude that individuals show differential responses to CoCrMo wear debris and that these responses could give early indications of the suitability of the patient for a metal-on-metal prosthesis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Davis E.T.,The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Davis E.T.,BrainLAB | Schubert M.,The Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust | Wegner M.,The Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust | Haimerl M.,The Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2015

A prospective clinical study of 50 patients was conducted to validate a new method of imageless computer navigated hip arthroplasty. The new method enables the surgeon to acquire all registration points with the patient positioned and draped in lateral decubitus position. The final component orientation was measured from post-operative CT scans. The mean error in component position was - 1.1° (SD 3.1°) for inclination and 0.9° (SD 4.3°) for anteversion. This compared favourably with the error of - 1.8° (SD 1.8°) for inclination and - 4.8° (SD 2.7°) for anteversion when using the traditional APP registration. Results show that one can expect the acetabular component to be within a safe zone of ± 10° in 99.8% for inclination and 97.7% for anteversion when using the new lateral registration method. Level of Evidence Level II, Prognostic study. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Newton Ede M.M.P.,The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Jones S.W.,University of Birmingham
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2016

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is now considered to be a multifactorial heterogeneous disease, with recent genomic studies supporting the role of intrinsic factors in contributing to the onset of disease pathology and curve progression. Understanding the key molecular signalling pathways by which these intrinsic factors mediate AIS pathology may facilitate the development of pharmacological therapeutics and the identification of predictive markers of progression. The heterogenic nature of AIS has implicated multiple tissue types in the disease pathophysiology, including spinal bone, intervertebral disc and paraspinal muscles. In this review, we highlight some of the mechanisms and intrinsic molecular regulators within these different tissue types and review the evidence for their involvement in AIS pathology. © 2016 The Author(s) Source

Smith T.O.,University of East Anglia | Jepson P.,University of Birmingham | Beswick A.,University of Bristol | Sands G.,University of Nottingham | And 3 more authors.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016

Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common orthopaedic operations performed worldwide. Painful osteoarthritis of the hip is the primary indication for THA. Following THA, people have conventionally been provided with equipment, such as raised toilet seats and chairs, and educated to avoid activities that could cause the hip joint to be in a position of flexion over 90 degrees, or adduction or rotation past the midline. These aspects of occupational therapy have been advocated to reduce the risks of prosthesis dislocation. However, the appropriateness of these recommendations has been questioned. Objectives: To assess the effects of provision of assistive devices, education on hip precautions, environmental modifications and training in activities of daily living (ADL) and extended ADL (EADL) for people undergoing THA. Search methods: We searched MEDLINE (1946 to April 2016), EMBASE (1947 to April 2016), the Cochrane Library including CENTRAL (Issue 4 of 12, 2016), Database of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment (HTA), Economic Evaluations Database (EED), CINAHL, PEDro and CIRRIE from inception to April 2016. In addition we checked Controlled Clinical Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov, the National Institutes of Health Trial Registry, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and the OpenGrey database from inception to April 2016. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cluster-RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of the provision of assistive devices, education on hip precautions, environmental modifications, or training in ADL and EADL for people undergoing THA. The main outcomes of interest were pain, function, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), global assessment of treatment success, reoperation rate, hip dislocation and adverse events. Data collection and analysis: We used standard methodological procedures recognised by Cochrane. We conducted a systematic literature search using several databases and contacted corresponding authors, appraised the evidence using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, analysed the data using a narrative analysis approach (as it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in interventions), and interpreted all outcomes using the GRADE approach. Main results: We included three trials with a total of 492 participants who had received 530 THA. The evidence presented with a high risk of performance, detection and reporting bias. One study (81 participants) compared outcomes for participants randomised to the provision of hip precautions, equipment and functional restrictions versus no provision of hip precautions, equipment or functional restrictions. Due to the quality of evidence being very low, we are uncertain if the provision of hip precautions, equipment and functional restrictions improved function measured using the Harris Hip Score at 12 month follow-up, or health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured by the Short Form-12 at four week follow-up, compared to not providing this. There were no incidences of hip dislocation or adverse events in either group during the initial 12 postoperative months. The study did not measure pain score, global assessment of treatment success or total adverse events. One study (265 participants; 303 THAs) evaluated the provision of hip precautions with versus without the prescription of postoperative equipment and restrictions to functional activities. Due to the quality of evidence being very low, we are uncertain if perceived satisfaction in the rate of recovery differed in people who were not prescribed postoperative equipment and restrictions (135/151 satisfied) compared to those prescribed equipment and restrictions (113/152) (risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 0.93; 265 participants, one trial; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) = 7). Due to the low quality evidence, we are uncertain if the incidence of hip dislocation differed between participants provided with hip precautions with (1/152) compared to without providing equipment or restrictions post-THA (0/151) (RR 2.98, 95% CI 0.12 to 72.59). The study did not measure pain, function, HRQOL, re-operation rates or total adverse events. One study (146 participants) investigated the provision of an enhanced postoperative education and rehabilitation service on hospital discharge to promote functional ADL versus a conventional rehabilitation intervention in the community. This study was of very low quality evidence. We were uncertain if the provision of enhanced postoperative education and rehabilitation improved function at six months follow-up, when assessed using the Objective and Subjective Functional Capability Index (146 participants, one trial; P > 0.05; no numerical results provided) compared to conventional rehabilitation. The study did not measure pain score, HRQOL, global assessment of treatment success, hip dislocation, re-operation rate or total adverse events. Authors' conclusions: Very low quality evidence is available from single trials, thus we are uncertain if hip precautions with or without the addition of equipment and functional restrictions are effective in preventing dislocation and improving outcomes after THA. There is also insufficient evidence to support or refute the adoption of a postoperative community rehabilitation programme consisting of functional reintegration and education compared to conventional rehabilitation strategies based on functional outcomes. Further high-quality trials are warranted to assess the outcomes of different occupational therapy interventions both in the short and longer-term for those who undergo THA. An assessment of the impact of such interventions on pain and restriction on personal ADL, EADL and instrumental ADL is needed, and also of functional integration-type interventions rather than just hip precautions, equipment and restrictions. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Jeys L.M.,Aston University | Thorne C.J.,University of Birmingham | Parry M.,The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Gaston C.L.L.,The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2016

Background: Chemotherapy response and surgical margins have been shown to be associated with the risk of local recurrence in patients with osteosarcoma. However, existing surgical staging systems fail to reflect the response to chemotherapy or define an appropriate safe metric distance from the tumor that will allow complete excision and closely predict the chance of disease recurrence. We therefore sought to review a group of patients with primary high-grade osteosarcoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical resection and analyzed margins and chemotherapy response in terms of local recurrence. Questions/purposes: (1) What predictor or combination of predictors available to the clinician can be assessed that more reliably predict the likelihood of local recurrence? (2) Can we determine a better predictor of local recurrence-free survival than the currently applied system of surgical margins? (3) Can we determine a better predictor of overall survival than the currently applied system of surgical margins? Methods: This retrospective study included all patients with high-grade conventional osteosarcomas without metastasis at diagnosis treated at one center between 1997 and 2012 with preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection or amputation of the primary tumor who were younger than age 50 years with minimum 24-month followup for those still alive. A total of 389 participants matched the inclusion criteria. Univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox analyses were undertaken to identify predictors of local recurrence-free survival (LRFS). The Birmingham classification was devised on the basis of two stems: the response to chemotherapy (good response = ≥ 90% necrosis; poor response = < 90% necrosis) and margins (< 2 mm or ≥ 2 mm). The 5-year overall survival rate was 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61%–71%) and 47 patients developed local recurrence (12%). Results: Intralesional margins (hazard ratio [HR], 9.9; 95% CI, 1.2–82; p = 0.03 versus radical margin HR, 1) and a poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7–8.4; p = 0.001 versus good response HR, 1) were independent risk factors for local recurrence (LR). The best predictor of LR, however, was a combination of margins ≤ 2 mm and a less than 90% necrosis response to chemotherapy (Birmingham 2b HR, 19.6; 95% CI, 2.6-144; p = 0.003 versus Birmingham 1a; margin >2 mm and more than 90% necrosis HR, 1). Two-stage Cox regression model and higher Harrell’s C statistic demonstrate that the Birmingham classification was superior to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) margin classification for predicting LR (Harrell’s C statistic Birmingham classification 0.68, MSTS criteria 0.59). A difference in overall survival was seen between groups of the Birmingham classification (log-rank test p < 0.0001), whereas the MSTS margin system was not discriminatory (log-rank test p = 0.14). Conclusions: Based on these observations, we believe that a combination of the recording of surgical margins in millimeters and the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can more accurately predict the risk of local recurrence than the current MSTS system. A multicenter collaboration study initiated by the International Society of Limb Salvage is recommended to test the validity of the proposed classification and if these findings are confirmed, this classification system might be considered the standard practice in oncology centers treating patients with osteosarcomas and allow more effective communication of margin status for research. Level of Evidence: Level IV, prognostic study. © 2016 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons® Source

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