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Cannon S.R.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2015

Purpose: The optimum treatment for periprosthetic fractures in the region of the distal femur is undefined. Although internal fixation for prostheses which are stable is commonly utilised, this can lead to very prolonged morbidity and failure of the fracture to unite. Where the prosthesis is either loose or infected, revision surgery is required and a ‘tumour type’ prosthesis can be successfully utilised. Methods: The outcome of 27 patients treated by an endoprosthetic replacement for periprosthetic fracture of the distal femur between 1988 and 2013 are reported. Two cases were treated by two-stage revision due to persistent infection. Clinical outcomes were assessed by Knee Society score and Knee Society pain scores. Results: All 27 patients mobilised rapidly in the post-operative period and infection where present was eradicated by the technique. There have been no cases of further revision in the patients where clinical follow-up is available. Knee Society scores following treatment averaged 88 and pain scores 43 at six months post-operatively. Eight patients have died during the long study period reflecting the age of the study population. Conclusions: The use of a tumour-type endoprosthesis in situations of comminuted periprosthetic fractures associated with a loose prosthesis shows favourable results with low complication rates and rapid mobilisation. © 2015, SICOT aisbl.

Gardner A.,University of Essex | Gardner E.,Southampton General Hospital | Morley T.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital
European Spine Journal | Year: 2011

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare condition with a disproportionately high medico-legal profile. It occurs most frequently following a large central lumbar disc herniation, prolapse or sequestration. Review of the literature indicates that around 50-70% of patients have urinary retention (CES-R) on presentation with 30-50% having an incomplete syndrome (CES-I). The latter group, especially if the history is less than a few days, usually requires emergency MRI to confirm the diagnosis followed by prompt decompression by a suitably experienced surgeon. Every effort should be made to avoid CES-I with its more favourable prognosis becoming CES-R while under medical supervision either before or after admission to hospital. The degree of urgency of early surgery in CES-R is still not in clear focus but it cannot be doubted that earliest decompression removes the mechanical and perhaps chemical factors which are the causes of progressive neurological damage. A full explanation and consent procedure prior to surgery is essential in order to reduce the likelihood of misunderstanding and litigation in the event of a persistent neurological deficit. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Mills L.A.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital | Simpson A.H.R.W.,University of Edinburgh
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objectives: In the UK there are approximately 850 000 new fractures seen each year. Rates of non-union of 5-10% of fractures have been suggested, the cost to the National Health Service of treating non-union has been reported to range between £7000 and £79 000 per person yet there are little actual data available. The objective of this epidemiological study therefore is for the first time to report the rates of fracture non-union. Design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study. Setting: The population of Scotland. Participants: All patient admissions to hospital in Scotland are coded according to diagnosis. These data are collected by (and were obtained from) Information Services Department Scotland. Those who have been coded for a bone non-union between 2005 and 2010 were included in the study. No patients were excluded. Population data were obtained from the Registrar General for Scotland. Outcome measure: The number of fracture nonunions per 100 000 population of Scotland according to age, sex and anatomical distribution of non-union. Results: 4895 non-unions were treated as inpatients in Scotland between 2005 and 2010, averaging 979 per year, with an overall incidence of 18.94 per 100 000 population per annum. The distribution according to gender was 57% male and 43% female. The overall peak incidence according to age was between 30 and 40 years. The mean population of Scotland between 2005 and 2010 was 5 169 140 people. Conclusion: Fracture non-union in the population as a whole remains low at less than 20 per 100 000 population and peaks in the fourth decade of life. Further research is required to determine the risk of non-union per fracture according to age/sex/anatomical distribution.

Obaid H.,Royal Infirmary | Connell D.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Various types of tissue-derived cells are being experimented with for the treatment of tendinopathy, tendon repair, and use in tissue engineering. Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to explore the current evidence with a view to evaluate the potential of this therapeutic intervention. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: A review of the literature was conducted using PubMed. Search criteria included keywords "tendinopathy," "tendinitis," "tendinosis," "epicondylitis," "stem cell," and "cell therapy." Articles not written in English language were excluded. Results: A total number of 379 articles were identified and a critical appraisal of the relevant articles was undertaken, which encompassed human and animal research. The review included articles related to various tissue-derived cells such as tendon progenitors, adipose tissue, synovium, muscle, bone marrow, and skin. The utility of cell therapy in tissue engineering and rotator cuff repair was also assessed. Conclusion: With the limitation of the available evidence, the literature suggests that cell therapy is applicable and may be effective for the treatment of tendinopathy. However, further research into the precise biological mechanisms, long-term implications, and cost-effectiveness is needed. © The Author(s), 2010.

Grimer R.J.,Royal Orthopaedic Hospital | Briggs T.W.R.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B | Year: 2010

Although bone and soft-tissue sarcomas are rare, early diagnosis and prompt referral to a specialised unit offers the best chance of a successful outcome both in terms of survival and surgical resection. This paper highlights the clinical and radiological features that might suggest the possibility of a bone or soft-tissue sarcoma and suggests a succinct management pathway for establishing whether a suspicious bone or soft-tissue lesion could be malignant. ©2010 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.

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