Toronto, Canada

Royal Ontario Museum

www.rom.on.ca
Toronto, Canada

The Royal Ontario Museum is a museum of world culture and natural history based in Toronto, Canada. It is one of the largest museums in North America, attracting over one million visitors every year. The museum is located north of Queen's Park, in the University of Toronto district, with its main entrance facing Bloor Street.Established on 16 April 1912 and opened on 19 March 1914, the museum has maintained close relations with the University of Toronto throughout its history, often sharing expertise and resources. The museum was under the direct control and management of the University of Toronto until 1968, when it became an independent institution. Today, the museum is Canada's largest field-research institution, with research and conservation activities that span the globe.With more than six million items and forty galleries, the museum's diverse collections of world culture and natural history are part of the reason for its international reputation. The museum contains notable collections of dinosaurs, minerals and meteorites, Near Eastern and African art, Art of East Asia, European history, and Canadian history. It also houses the world's largest collection of fossils from the Burgess Shale with more than 150,000 specimens. The museum also contains an extensive collection of design and fine arts, including clothing, interior, and product design, especially Art Deco. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.sciencenewsdaily.org

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers with the Royal Ontario Museum and the University of Toronto, both in Canada, has unearthed what is being described as one of the most complete ankylosaur fossilized skeletal remains ever from the Judith River Formation in Montana. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, the group describes the find and why they believe study will reveal more about the diversity of the creatures that roamed the Earth not long before the end of the dinosaurs. Don't let the ferocious name of a new armored dinosaur found in Montana fool you: Zuul crurivastator (the new genus is a nod to the main Ghostbusters villain) is actually quite the softie. At ... Pristine, demon-faced dinosaur is named after Zuul from ‘Ghostbusters’ The dinosaur was given a rather unfair name, as it was almost certainly a peaceful vegetarian. Dinosaur named for 'Ghostbusters' creature found in Montana 75 million years after its death A remarkably complete, 75-million year old dinosaur skeleton from Montana is recognized as a new genus and species of armored ankylosaurian dinosaur. It's named after Zuul from "Ghostbusters." Who you gonna call? Dinosaur named for 'Ghostbusters' beast Zuul WASHINGTON (Reuters) - It was more of a leg buster, but scientists have named a spiky, tank-like dinosaur that wielded a sledge-hammer tail after the fanciful beast Zuul from the blockbuster ... The armoured ankylosaurian dinosaur was discovered from a skeleton found in the Judith River Formation in Montana, dating from the Late Cretaceous.


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: motherboard.vice.com

Zuul from 'Ghostbusters', a grotesque and demonic dog-like thing, has inspired its own subreddits, memes, and once, a heavy metal band. Now the Gatekeeper of Gozer is a muse once again: scientists from the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) in Toronto have named their newest species of dinosaur after her. Zuul crurivastator is a 75-million-year old plant-eater. This Zuul is an entirely new species of Ankylosaurid, or armoured dinosaur. When the research team determined that the dinosaur represented a new species, they started throwing around possible names. "I half-jokingly said it looks like Zuul [from Ghostbusters]," said the lead author on this study, Victoria Arbour, a PhD fellow at the ROM and University of Toronto, and an all-around expert on armoured dinosaurs. "The name just stuck." Zuul's skeleton was nearly complete when it was excavated in 2014 from the Judith River Formation of Montana, site of some of the first North American dino discoveries. This was a godsend to scientists like Arbour: from the skeleton, she found that Zuul's three-metre-long tail was covered in many rows of large, sharp, bony spikes. (It will eventually be put on display at the ROM, although there's no date set for that yet.) Arbour said that the tail spikes are common in all Ankylosaurs, but it's not often seen in dinos found in North America. That's because most Ankylosaurs found here are preserved in ancient river and stream deposits, and skeletons would have been picked apart by scavengers or strewn about by the water. It's also "surprisingly rare" to find complete skulls, said Arbour. "Sometimes you get forehead and part of a snout, but it's great to have a beautiful, complete skull." Read More: Dinosaurs Took a Surprisingly Long Time to Hatch As for why Zuul was so well-preserved, Arbour said it might have been quickly buried after it died, barring scavengers from eating it, and moving water from pulling the skeleton apart. This quick preservation could lead to a major scientific breakthrough for Arbour and her team. Zuul was found with intact soft tissues, like scales. Discovering soft tissue in 75-million-year-old animals is something to be excited about, because that's the stuff that actually can disappear without a trace. Zuul's soft tissue could allow scientists to hopefully find ancient proteins, and clues about early life, Arbour said. "We'll be looking for keratin or other proteins we haven't even thought of before." It could help scientists understand more about what the world was like at the "twilight of the dinosaurs," she said, when these animals were on the countdown to extinction. Get six of our favorite Motherboard stories every day by signing up for our newsletter.


Actor Dan Aykroyd poses in the Royal Ontario Museum's paleontology collections room with fossils of Zuul crurivastator, a new species of armored dinosaur named after the beast Zuul from the film “Ghostbusters” at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada on on April 21, 2017. Brian Boyle/Royal Ontario Museum/Handout via REUTERS FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS WASHINGTON (Reuters) - It was more of a leg buster, but scientists have named a spiky, tank-like dinosaur that wielded a sledge-hammer tail after the fanciful beast Zuul from the blockbuster film "Ghostbusters" that menaced Bill Murray, Dan Aykroyd and friends. The scientists on Tuesday described fossils unearthed in the northern Montana badlands of the four-legged, plant-eating dinosaur called Zuul crurivastator that was about 20 feet (6 meters) long, weighed 2-1/2 tons and lived 75 million years ago. Zuul belonged to a group of Cretaceous Period dinosaurs called ankylosaurs that were among the most heavily armored land animals ever. They were clad in bony armor from the snout to the end of the tail, often with spikes and a tail club that could be used to smash the legs of predators like the Tyrannosaurus rex cousin Gorgosaurus that lived alongside Zuul. Zuul is one of the most complete and best-preserved ankylosaur ever found, including rare soft tissue, paleontologist Victoria Arbour of the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto said. Its fossils included skin impressions and keratinous sheaths on the tail spikes. In the 1984 movie, Zuul (pronounced ZOOL) was described as an ancient Near East demigod and appeared as a big, horned, vaguely dog-like monster with glowing red eyes, possessing Sigourney Weaver's body. The dinosaur's name was inspired by its skull similarities to the head of the "Ghostbusters" monster, Royal Ontario Museum paleontologist David Evans said. "The skull of the new dinosaur has a short, rounded snout, gnarly forehead, and two sets of horns projecting backwards from behind the eyes, just like Zuul," Evans said. Aykroyd, the Ontario-born "Ghostbusters" star and co-writer, appeared in a video released by the museum alongside the dinosaur's skull, holding a photo of the movie beast. "We're so honored that the Royal Ontario Museum would accord the name of this magnificent creature with the appellation that we called our 'terror dog' in the movie, and that is Zuul, Z-U-U-L," Aykroyd said. The dinosaur's tail, about 10 feet (3 meters) long, was an intimidating defensive weapon. "The menacing, spiked tail of Zuul is by far the coolest part of the animal," Evans said. "It has a wicked series of large spikes at the base of the tail, then a series of elongated, peaked spines that run the length of the tail club, and it ends in a massive, expanded club." The research was published in the journal Royal Society Open Science.


Someone call the Ghostbusters: Scientists have discovered a new species of horned, club-tailed dinosaur with a spooky resemblance to the monstrous demigod Zuul, one of the villains of the 1984 movie. The ankylosaur, described in Royal Society Open Science, could shed light on the surprising diversity of these creatures near the end of the age of dinosaurs. Zuul crurivastator’s scaly body stretched some 20 feet long, with an impressive tail that took up half that length. Its tail was lined with forbidding spikes and ended in a sledgehammer-like club. Two horns sat on its skull right behind the eyes, giving it a very Zuul-like look that inspired the genus name. Z. crurivastator weighed in around 5,500 pounds, which is about the size of a white rhinoceros, said study leader Victoria Arbour, a paleontologist at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. Fearsome as it may look, this dinosaur was a plant eater that roamed present-day northern Montana some 75 million years ago. This specimen was discovered while scientists were digging up another dinosaur and a bulldozer apparently encountered the ankylosaur’s tail. (A small fragment came off in the process but was easily reattached later, Arbour said.) Complete fossils of ankylosaurs are, for some reason, very difficult to find. Like a coin toss, these specimens basically appear to produce either heads or tails — but not both at the same time. “You get, like, an OK tail but a little scrap of the skull, or a pretty nice skull and a little scrap of the tail,” Arbour said. The fact that this specimen has such a complete skull and tail makes it a rare discovery. The size and shape of the strange spikes along the tail and the ornamentation on the skull help mark it as a novel ankylosaur species. And the fossil has been so well preserved — perhaps buried in sediment soon after it died — that researchers even found soft tissue, including scales and sheaths for the spikes. Because the soft tissue was so well preserved, the spikes were held together in their original placement. “It keeps those bony spikes in place all the way down the tail, so we have a really good idea of what it would have looked like while it was alive,” Arbour said. “It kind of is like a Rosetta stone for interpreting isolated spikes when we find them when we’re just walking around the badlands.” Like their relatively close cousins the stegosaurs, ankylosaurs may have used their weaponized tails to fend off predators such as tyrannosaurs: The species name crurivastator means “destroyer of shins.” It’s also possible that the dinosaurs used their tails to compete with other males, though it’s hard to test that theory in an extinct species, Arbour noted. “We know that other ankylosaurs could swing their tails with a lot of force, enough force to break bone,” she said. “But they were really well-adapted for absorbing those forces so they wouldn’t break themselves.” Scientists once thought North America was home to just one or two species of ankylosaur, but this new specimen adds to the growing body of evidence that there were far more of these hammer-tailed species than previously thought. “That kind of matches up a bit more with what we see in the horned dinosaurs and the duck-billed dinosaurs, where there’s really high species diversity in the twilight of the age of dinosaurs,” Arbour said. “So they were doing really well at that period ... and this particular dinosaur filled in a little bit of a gap in that record.” The paleontologists haven’t yet fully extricated the fossil from the large hunks of rock they brought back to the lab; that process could take a couple of years, Arbour said. In the meantime, they hope to examine the fossil’s soft tissues to learn about its biochemistry and perhaps identify molecules like keratin or collagen, the kinds of compounds found in fingernails or skin. “We’re also going to be studying some of the other fossils that were found in the same quarry as this ankylosaur,” Arbour added. “We’ve got great fossils of turtles and crocodiles and other dinosaurs and plants and clams and snails, so we’re hoping to be able to flesh out the ecosystem that Zuul lived in as well.” Follow @aminawrite on Twitter for more science news and "like" Los Angeles Times Science & Health on Facebook. Scientists are on alert after the latest changes at the EPA To live a long life in America, it helps to be born in the right county Another way humans are polluting the environment: Too much noise


News Article | May 12, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

Discovering Biodiversity Even at the Heart of the Nation's Capital OTTAWA, ON--(Marketwired - May 12, 2017) - Next May 16, right at Parliament Hill itself, comes the launch of a new cross-Canada initiative, BioBlitz Canada 150, one of the Canada 150 Signature Projects. Coordinated by the Canadian Wildlife Federation and more than 60 partner organizations, this series of BioBlitz events will reach thousands of Canadians from sea to sea to sea in a celebration of our wild natural heritage. The launch will take a "nature selfie" of the Hill, outdoors, in habitat that lives on at this historic site. A select all-party squad of parliamentarians, some of whom are accomplished scientists in their own right, will team up with expert naturalists and head out to demonstrate what a BioBlitz is. Before media representatives and a film crew, they will have 45 minutes to survey a section along the base of the wooded slopes and the riverside, in a friendly race to list all the living species they can see, hear or reach. "This fascinating project will help us raise our environmental awareness," said the Honourable Mélanie Joly, Minister of Canadian Heritage. "Let's take this opportunity to celebrate Canada 150 by connecting with Canada's natural beauty and learning more about Canada's wild species -- a priceless resource." "BioBlitz Canada 150 calls all citizens to be citizen-scientists this year," added Rick Bates, CEO of the Canadian Wildlife Federation. "Canadians, like our parliamentarians, range from very expert to just getting to know our wildlife better. But everyone can truly contribute real scientific knowledge in 2017 for the future of Canada's natural heritage." Leading the way, Senator Rosa Galvez (Independent) and MPs Will Amos (Liberal), Richard Cannings (NDP), Elizabeth May (Green) and Robert Sopuck (Conservative) will show how Canadians everywhere can come together too in 2017 to explore Canada's rich biodiversity. In 2017, 35 official BioBlitz events across the country will include 5 flagships in Regina, Toronto, Vancouver, Quebec City and Halifax, with 20 community celebrations and science activities, as well as 10 specialized science-intensive surveys by taxonomic experts. The BioBlitz Canada 150 events, including the demonstration launch, will gather real scientific data, tracking the changing species mix in each area -- maybe even making discoveries of species new to science. This information will ground our knowledge of such issues as climate change and the state of our biodiversity. The results will be shared in the public domain, accessible to all citizens, wildlife managers, conservation groups, science and education institutions, and government organizations to help shape wise decisions now and into the future to help conserve these wild species for generations to come. For more information about BioBlitz Canada 150 and for the list of events, as they roll out across the country, please visit bioblitzcanada.ca. The Canadian Wildlife Federation is dedicated to fostering awareness and appreciation of our natural world. By spreading knowledge of human impacts on the environment, sponsoring research, promoting the sustainable use of natural resources, recommending legislative changes and co-operating with like-minded partners, CWF encourages a future in which Canadians can live in harmony with nature. Visit CanadianWildlifeFederation.ca for more information. BioBlitz Canada is a national partnership of leading conservation, education and research organizations with the goal to document Canada's biodiversity by connecting the public with nature in a scientist-led participatory survey of life from sea to sea to sea, and make sure this important information can be useful to current and future science, with open-source access to all. Its vision is to help Canadians learn about and connect with nature, be it in one's own backyard or the most important ecological sites in Canada. Alliance of Natural History Museums of Canada, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Biological Survey of Canada, Birds Studies Canada, Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Wildlife Service (Environment and Climate Change Canada), iNaturalist Canada, Nature Canada, Nature Conservancy of Canada, NatureServe Canada, New Brunswick Museum, Parks Canada, RARE Charitable Research Reserve, Royal Ontario Museum, Royal Saskatchewan Museum, Stanley Park Ecology Society, Toronto Zoo, Vancouver Aquarium and other organizations. About iNaturalist Canada: Launched in 2015, iNaturalist Canada is a virtual place where Canadians can record and share what they see in nature, interact with other nature watchers, and learn about Canada's wildlife. The app is run by the Canadian Wildlife Federation (CWF) and the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) in collaboration with iNaturalist.org and the California Academy of Sciences. Parks Canada, NatureServe Canada and CWF's Hinterland Who's Who have been key partners in the development of iNaturalist Canada and will continue to play a role in the program.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

Some incredible dinosaur fossils have turned up recently, like a bog-pickled brain and a feathered tail. Now, the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) has unveiled a new species of ankylosaur, based on an almost complete skeleton and some preserved soft tissue that doesn't normally fossilize. Meet Zuul crurivastator, "Destroyer of Shins." Before we get to the specifics, that name needs some explaining. Pop culture geeks will probably recognize "Zuul" as the name of the Terror Dog from the 1984 film Ghostbusters, and that's no coincidence. According to the scientists, the head of the dinosaur looks a lot like the movie monster, since "both have a broad, rounded snout, gnarly forehead, and two sets of horns behind the eyes." The second part of the name translates to "Destroyer of Shins", since the heavy club on the end of its tail was probably used to fend off any predators unwise enough to try to make a meal of the creature. But no matter how hardy they may have been in life, the animals don't hold up so well against the punishment of time, and ankylosaur fossils – let alone ones as complete as Zuul – are pretty rare finds. That makes the specimen quite special for a few reasons. Not only is it one of the most complete skeletons ever found of this type of dinosaur, it's also the first time the skull and the club on the tail have been found as part of the same skeleton. That completeness is made even more impressive thanks to the full suit of armor the skeleton is wearing, which, since it's actually part of the skin, tends to fall off as the animal decomposes. Other soft tissues have also been unusually well-preserved, including sections of skin and horn tips with evidence of the keratin protein that makes up human fingernails. The researchers expect that more skin samples will turn up, after the belly and hips of the skeleton are carefully dug out of a 15-tonne block of stone, which could take a few more years. For now, the creature is described mostly from the skull and tail. Zuul was dug out of the Judith River Formation in Montana, and it dates back about 75 million years. The skull and tail will be on display soon at the Royal Ontario Museum, while the researchers plan to keep looking for more skin impressions and use molecular palaeontology techniques to study the soft tissues. The new species was described in a research paper published in Royal Society Open Source. The skeleton can be seen in the video below.


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

What's as long as a pickup truck, as heavy as a white rhinoceros and as weird-looking as Zuul, the monster from the 1984 "Ghostbusters" movie? A newfound species of ankylosaurus. In a new study, researchers describe the 75-million-year-old dinosaur that lived during the Cretaceous  and sported bony armor and spikes. Due to its uncanny resemblance to Zuul, paleontologists are calling it Zuul crurivastator (CRUR-uh-vass-TATE-or). The genus name is a nod to Zuul, the fictional Gatekeeper of Gozer in "Ghostbusters." The species name translates to "destroyer of shins" in Latin, a name inspired by the club at the end of the dinosaur's tail. [See images of Zuul crurivastator, the 75-million-year-old ankylosaurus] Like Zuul in "Ghostbusters," Z. crurivastator has a short, rounded snout, large horns and a gnarled appearance, the researchers said. They found the beast in 2016 in Montana's Judith River Formation, a site known for its vast array of dinosaur fossils. But despite the formation's fame among fossil hunters, the discovery of Z. crurivastator took the researchers by surprise. For starters, it is the first ankylosaur from the formation that has received a scientific name, they said. It's also one of the most complete dinosaur skeletons from this formation. "Remarkably, [it] is the first ankylosaurin skeleton known with a complete skull and tail club, and it is the most complete ankylosaurid ever found in North America," the researchers wrote in the study. The Zuul-like specimen also has preserved soft tissues, including osteoderms (armor made of bone), skin impressions and dark films that likely represent preserved keratin, the researchers said. Z. crurivastator may have looked intimidating, as if it would devour another dinosaur, but it was actually a plant eater, the researchers said. Rather, it likely used the club at the end of its 10-foot-long (3 meters) tail to hit the legs of predators, they added. Moreover, it may have used its powerful tail to battle rival males for mates or territory, the researchers said. Zuul also sported several rows of large, sharp, bony spikes along its 20-foot-long (6 m) body, the researchers said. It weighed about 5,500 lbs. (2,500 kilograms), about as much as a modern white rhinoceros. "I’ve been working on ankylosaurs for years, and the spikes running all the way down Zuul’s tail were a fantastic surprise to me — like nothing I’ve ever seen in a North American ankylosaur," the study's lead researcher, Victoria Arbour, a postdoctoral fellow of paleontology at the Royal Ontario Museum and University of Toronto, said in a statement. The finding shows that ankylosaurus dinosaurs were evolving rapidly during the late Cretaceous period in North America, the researchers added.


Actor Dan Aykroyd poses in the Royal Ontario Museum's paleontology collections room with fossils of Zuul crurivastator, a new species of armored dinosaur named after the beast Zuul from the film “Ghostbusters” at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada on on April 21, 2017. Brian Boyle/Royal Ontario Museum/Handout via REUTERS FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS WASHINGTON (Reuters) - It was more of a leg buster, but scientists have named a spiky, tank-like dinosaur that wielded a sledge-hammer tail after the fanciful beast Zuul from the blockbuster film "Ghostbusters" that menaced Bill Murray, Dan Aykroyd and friends. The scientists on Tuesday described fossils unearthed in the northern Montana badlands of the four-legged, plant-eating dinosaur called Zuul crurivastator that was about 20 feet (6 meters) long, weighed 2-1/2 tons and lived 75 million years ago. Zuul belonged to a group of Cretaceous Period dinosaurs called ankylosaurs that were among the most heavily armored land animals ever. They were clad in bony armor from the snout to the end of the tail, often with spikes and a tail club that could be used to smash the legs of predators like the Tyrannosaurus rex cousin Gorgosaurus that lived alongside Zuul. Zuul is one of the most complete and best-preserved ankylosaur ever found, including rare soft tissue, paleontologist Victoria Arbour of the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto said. Its fossils included skin impressions and keratinous sheaths on the tail spikes. In the 1984 movie, Zuul (pronounced ZOOL) was described as an ancient Near East demigod and appeared as a big, horned, vaguely dog-like monster with glowing red eyes, possessing Sigourney Weaver's body. The dinosaur's name was inspired by its skull similarities to the head of the "Ghostbusters" monster, Royal Ontario Museum paleontologist David Evans said. "The skull of the new dinosaur has a short, rounded snout, gnarly forehead, and two sets of horns projecting backwards from behind the eyes, just like Zuul," Evans said. Aykroyd, the Ontario-born "Ghostbusters" star and co-writer, appeared in a video released by the museum alongside the dinosaur's skull, holding a photo of the movie beast. "We're so honored that the Royal Ontario Museum would accord the name of this magnificent creature with the appellation that we called our 'terror dog' in the movie, and that is Zuul, Z-U-U-L," Aykroyd said. The dinosaur's tail, about 10 feet (3 meters) long, was an intimidating defensive weapon. "The menacing, spiked tail of Zuul is by far the coolest part of the animal," Evans said. "It has a wicked series of large spikes at the base of the tail, then a series of elongated, peaked spines that run the length of the tail club, and it ends in a massive, expanded club." The research was published in the journal Royal Society Open Science.


Smith M.R.,University of Cambridge | Caron J.-B.,Royal Ontario Museum | Caron J.-B.,University of Toronto
Nature | Year: 2015

The molecularly defined clade Ecdysozoa comprises the panarthropods (Euarthropoda, Onychophora and Tardigrada) and the cycloneuralian worms (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Loricifera and Kinorhyncha). These disparate phyla are united by their means of moulting, but otherwise share few morphological characters-none of which has a meaningful fossilization potential. As such, the early evolutionary history of the group as a whole is largely uncharted. Here we redescribe the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale. We document an elongate head with a pair of simple eyes, a terminal buccal chamber containing a radial array of sclerotized elements, and a differentiated foregut that is lined with acicular teeth. The radial elements and pharyngeal teeth resemble the sclerotized circumoral elements and pharyngeal teeth expressed in tardigrades, stem-group euarthropods and cycloneuralian worms. Phylogenetic results indicate that equivalent structures characterized the ancestral panarthropod and, seemingly, the ancestral ecdysozoan, demonstrating the deep homology of panarthropod and cycloneuralian mouthparts, and providing an anatomical synapomorphy for the ecdysozoan supergroup. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


The cranial anatomy of the helmet-crested lambeosaurine Hypacrosaurus altispinus (Ornithischia: Hadrosauridae) is described, with a focus on ontogenetic and individual variation in phylogenetically significant characters of the cranial crest, braincase, and facial skeleton. Cranial material of H. altispinus represents a relatively complete growth series that includes crestless juveniles of less than half the size of large individuals with fully developed crests. Cranial ontogeny is compared with other lambeosaurines using bivariate morphometrics and through qualitative comparison of a size-standardized cranial growth series. Bivariate analyses reveal that the relative growth of the skull and cranial crest of H. altispinus and H. stebingeri are similar, and that Hypacrosaurus more closely resembles Corythosaurus than Lambeosaurus. Hypacrosaurus altispinus is systematically revised. The taxon is characterized by five autapomorphies, most of which are concentrated in the skull, as well as an enlarged terminal ischial foot. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian likelihood (Mk+gamma) phylogenetic analyses were conducted to test the monophyly of the genus. Hypacrosaurus monophyly is corroborated in light of new anatomical data. Although H. stebingeri and H. altispinus share few derived characters of the skull, the hypothesis that H. stebingeri is a metaspecies that represents the ancestor of H. altispinus cannot be rejected.© 2010 The Linnean Society of London.

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