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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

Johnson D.G.,University of Virginia | Noorman M.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science
2014 IEEE International Symposium on Ethics in Science, Technology and Engineering, ETHICS 2014 | Year: 2014

A survey of popular, technical and scholarly literature suggests that autonomous artificial agents will populate the future. Although some visions may seem fanciful, autonomous artificial agents are being designed, built, and deployed in a wide range of sectors. The specter of future artificial agents - with more learning capacity and more autonomy - raises important questions about responsibility. Can anyone (any humans) be responsible for the behavior of entities that learn as they go and operate autonomously? This paper takes as its starting place that humans are and always should be held responsible for the behavior of machines, even machines that learn and operate autonomously. In order to prevent evolution to a future in which no humans are thought to be responsible for the behavior of artificial agents, four principles are proposed, principles that should be kept in mind as artificial agents are developed. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Kruijt B.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science | van den Berg T.J.T.P.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

This study optically determines whether the amount of light scatter due to laser-induced damage to the intraocular lens (IOL) is significant in relation to normal straylight values in the human eye. Two IOLs with laser-induced damage were extracted from two donor eyes. Each IOL had 15 pits and/or cracks. The surface area of each pit was measured using a microscope. For 6 pits per intraocular lens the point spread function (PSF) in terms of straylight was measured and the total straylight for all 15 pits was estimated. The damage in the IOLs was scored as mild/moderate. The total damaged surface areas, for a 3.5 mm pupil, in the two IOLs were 0.13% (0.0127 mm 2) and 0.66% (0.064 mm 2), respectively. The angular dependence of the straylight caused by the damage was similar to that of the normal PSF. The total average contribution to straylight was log(s) = -0.82 and -0.42, much less than the straylight value of the normal eye. The straylight due to normal levels of laser induced damage of the IOL is much lower than normal straylight values found clinically for the normal eye and may therefore be considered not significant. © 2012 Kruijt, van den Berg. Source


Kruijt B.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science | Van Den Berg T.J.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science
Current Eye Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: To investigate whether light scattering of posterior capsule opacifications (PCOs) changes after fixation with paraformaldehyde (PFA). Methods: The intraocular lens with the lens capsule were extracted from pseudophakic donor eyes. Images of the extracted sample were acquired pre and post PFA-fixation using a dark field microscope. Light scatter intensity was measured for different regions pre and post fixation. Results: The regression lines between the light intensities measured pre and post fixation for the three color channels showed the same slope of 0.96. Also the correlation coefficients were the same for the three color channels, namely 0.97. Conclusions: Scattering intensities of PCO tissue pre and post fixation are quantitatively similar. The effects of fixation on the optical properties of PCO can be considered small. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Cui F.,University of Groningen | Cui F.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science | Arnstein D.,University of Groningen | Arnstein D.,University of Tubingen | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Some theories of motor control suggest efference-copies of motor commands reach somatosensory cortices. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test these models. We varied the amount of efference-copy signal by making participants squeeze a soft material either actively or passively. We found electromyographical recordings, an efference-copy proxy, to predict activity in primary somatosensory regions, in particular Brodmann Area (BA) 2. Partial correlation analyses confirmed that brain activity in cortical structures associated with motor control (premotor and supplementary motor cortices, the parietal area PF and the cerebellum) predicts brain activity in BA2 without being entirely mediated by activity in early somatosensory (BA3b) cortex. Our study therefore provides valuable empirical evidence for efference-copy models of motor control, and shows that signals in BA2 can indeed reflect an input from motor cortices and suggests that we should interpret activations in BA2 as evidence for somatosensory-motor rather than somatosensory coding alone. © 2014 Cui et al. Source


Kruijt B.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science | Franssen L.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science | Prick L.J.J.M.,Academic Medical Center and Oculenti | Van Vliet J.M.J.,Academic Medical Center and Oculenti | Van Den Berg T.J.T.P.,Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and science
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2011

Purpose. Albinism is an inherited disorder that affects the melanin biosynthesis pathway, which results in reduced or absent pigment formation. This may lead to increased light transmission through the iris and more reflected light from the fundus. Both these effects contribute to the occurrence of ocular straylight. One aim of this study is to determine whether and how increased iris transmission and fundus reflection in subjects with albinism contributes to the occurrence of ocular straylight. The other aim is to determine the effect that an iris print-contact lens (CL) could have in terms of reducing the occurrence of ocular straylight. Methods. Ocular straylight was quantified by means of the straylight parameter s and measured as a function of angle and wavelength in 17 subjects with different types of albinism, none of whom wore an iris print-CL. The measurements were then repeated with the subjects wearing an iris print-CL to reduce the iris transmission component and thus the occurrence of ocular straylight. The contributions of transmission and reflectance components were estimated for each individual. Results. Straylight level increase varied from normal (s ≈9) to severe (8x). In 15 cases, the reflectance component contributed s >3 to up to s = 17. In eight cases, the transmission component contributed s >3 to up to s = 101. A significant reduction in straylight was observed using an iris print-CL in six subjects with elevated straylight values. In the other 11 subjects with albinism, the iris print-CL had no significant effect on straylight because of the low values of the transmission component. Conclusions. This study gives insight into the effects of transmission and reflectance on the total measured straylight occurrence in subjects with albinism. Subjects experiencing increased ocular straylight values may benefit significantly from wearing iris print-CLs because transmission of light through the natural iris may cause a significant increase in straylight. © 2011 American Academy of Optometry. Source

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