Royal National Lifeboat Institution

Poole, United Kingdom

Royal National Lifeboat Institution

Poole, United Kingdom
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Anand M.,Bournemouth University | Hadfield M.,Bournemouth University | Thomas B.,Bournemouth University | Cantrill R.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications | Year: 2017

Previous work of authors indicated the wear of cylinder liners in marine engines of RNLI lifeboats due to the intense lubricant degradation identified by inductively coupled plasma and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy techniques. In this paper, further analysis carried out to evaluate the effects of lubricant degradation on the actual cylinder liners installed in the Trent Class Lifeboat engines is presented. Surface characterisation of actual cylinder liner's bore surface showed maximum wear near the top dead centre region compared to rest of the piston stroke. Wear in this region of the cylinder liner surface is controlled primarily by the protective film forming anti-wear additives in the lubricant which limit the direct surface contact between the piston rings and cylinder liner. The condition of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates anti-wear additives was analysed using the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Tribology analysis was conducted to evaluate the tribological and boundary film forming performance of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates additives by simulating cylinder liner-piston ring contact near the top dead centre. To further understand the wear mechanisms of the cylinder liner, wear debris analysis (Analytical Ferrography) of lubricant samples was performed. Results revealed the depletion of phosphorus containing zinc dialkyldithiophosphates anti-wear additives as a function of the lubricant's duty cycle within the marine engines and its effect on the tribological and boundary film forming performance of lubricants. Wear debris analysis showed the generation of ferrous debris potentially from the cylinder liners as a result of reduced anti-wear protection from the depleted zinc dialkyldithiophosphates additives during the tribological contact with piston rings and piston skirt region. These findings are useful to understand the lubricant degradation mechanisms which affect the functionality of cylinder liners, therefore allowing to plan the engine maintenance strategies. © IMechE 2016.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

Research by the Universities of Southampton and Plymouth has found a new link between breaking waves and the hazard posed by rip currents. The research provides a better understanding why some surf zone conditions are more hazardous than others and could result in more lives being saved. Hazardous rip currents are features on many beaches worldwide, and are thought to account for 68 per cent of rescue events involving the Royal National Lifeboat Institution's beach lifeguards in the UK. The study, which also involved researchers from Macquarie University (Sydney, AUS), and Deltares (Netherlands), used a combination of video imagery and in-situ rip current measurements at Perranporth Beach in Cornwall, which is well known for experiencing dangerous rips. The researchers found that when waves break across the end of a rip channel, it in effect closes the channel and stops the currents from travelling far offshore. Crucially, however, they found that the absence of breaking waves across the channel promotes the formation of a much more hazardous rip current that can extend far offshore. Sebastian Pitman, a PhD student in Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, who led the study, said: "For the first time, we combined images captured by cameras at the beach to detect wave breaking and GPS drifters to track the rip currents to better understand what drives rip dynamics. We used the images to identify whether the waves were breaking across the end of the rip channel, or not, and worked out what behaviour the GPS drifters in the rip current were exhibiting at those times." Co-author Associate Professor Ivan Haigh, also of Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, said: "The combination of video imagery and GPS allowed us to identify that when wave breaking occurred across the rip channel, the rip current was often prevented from flowing far offshore. This would mean that anyone trapped in the current would be kept relatively close to the beach. However, when the waves ceased to break across the channel, we noticed that the rip currents would instead flow far offshore, presenting a much greater hazard to swimmers." This is the latest research into rip currents involving the University of Plymouth, with previous work having focussed on combining GPS drifter data with information recorded using current meters and water level sensors. This study builds on existing research between Plymouth and the RNLI and, for the first time, uses images captured at the beach to provide a comprehensive picture of the threats posed by rip currents. Gerd Masselink, Professor of Coastal Geomorphology at the University of Plymouth, said: "It is possible to use the visually-observed wave breaking patterns to better understand why some surf zone conditions are more hazardous to bathers than others. This new information provides a useful means by which lifeguards on the beach can assess the hazard posed by a beach at a given time, which could result in more lives being saved."


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Research by the Universities of Southampton and Plymouth has found a new link between breaking waves and the hazard posed by rip currents. The research provides a better understanding why some surf zone conditions are more hazardous than others and could result in more lives being saved. Hazardous rip currents are features on many beaches worldwide, and are thought to account for 68 per cent of rescue events involving the Royal National Lifeboat Institution's beach lifeguards in the UK. The study, which also involved researchers from Macquarie University (Sydney, AUS), and Deltares (Netherlands), used a combination of video imagery and in-situ rip current measurements at Perranporth Beach in Cornwall, which is well known for experiencing dangerous rips. The researchers found that when waves break across the end of a rip channel, it in effect closes the channel and stops the currents from travelling far offshore. Crucially, however, they found that the absence of breaking waves across the channel promotes the formation of a much more hazardous rip current that can extend far offshore. Sebastian Pitman, a PhD student in Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, who led the study, said: "For the first time, we combined images captured by cameras at the beach to detect wave breaking and GPS drifters to track the rip currents to better understand what drives rip dynamics. We used the images to identify whether the waves were breaking across the end of the rip channel, or not, and worked out what behaviour the GPS drifters in the rip current were exhibiting at those times." Co-author Associate Professor Ivan Haigh, also of Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, said: "The combination of video imagery and GPS allowed us to identify that when wave breaking occurred across the rip channel, the rip current was often prevented from flowing far offshore. This would mean that anyone trapped in the current would be kept relatively close to the beach. However, when the waves ceased to break across the channel, we noticed that the rip currents would instead flow far offshore, presenting a much greater hazard to swimmers." This is the latest research into rip currents involving the University of Plymouth, with previous work having focussed on combining GPS drifter data with information recorded using current meters and water level sensors. This study builds on existing research between Plymouth and the RNLI and, for the first time, uses images captured at the beach to provide a comprehensive picture of the threats posed by rip currents. Gerd Masselink, Professor of Coastal Geomorphology at the University of Plymouth, said: "It is possible to use the visually-observed wave breaking patterns to better understand why some surf zone conditions are more hazardous to bathers than others. This new information provides a useful means by which lifeguards on the beach can assess the hazard posed by a beach at a given time, which could result in more lives being saved." The findings are published in the Marine Geology journal, and are available here: http://www.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Research by the Universities of Southampton and Plymouth has found a new link between breaking waves and the hazard posed by rip currents. The research provides a better understanding why some surf zone conditions are more hazardous than others and could result in more lives being saved. Hazardous rip currents are features on many beaches worldwide, and are thought to account for 68 per cent of rescue events involving the Royal National Lifeboat Institution's beach lifeguards in the UK. The study, which also involved researchers from Macquarie University (Sydney, AUS), and Deltares (Netherlands), used a combination of video imagery and in-situ rip current measurements at Perranporth Beach in Cornwall, which is well known for experiencing dangerous rips. The researchers found that when waves break across the end of a rip channel, it in effect closes the channel and stops the currents from travelling far offshore. Crucially, however, they found that the absence of breaking waves across the channel promotes the formation of a much more hazardous rip current that can extend far offshore. Sebastian Pitman, a PhD student in Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, who led the study, said: "For the first time, we combined images captured by cameras at the beach to detect wave breaking and GPS drifters to track the rip currents to better understand what drives rip dynamics. We used the images to identify whether the waves were breaking across the end of the rip channel, or not, and worked out what behaviour the GPS drifters in the rip current were exhibiting at those times." Co-author Associate Professor Ivan Haigh, also of Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, said: "The combination of video imagery and GPS allowed us to identify that when wave breaking occurred across the rip channel, the rip current was often prevented from flowing far offshore. This would mean that anyone trapped in the current would be kept relatively close to the beach. However, when the waves ceased to break across the channel, we noticed that the rip currents would instead flow far offshore, presenting a much greater hazard to swimmers." This is the latest research into rip currents involving the University of Plymouth, with previous work having focussed on combining GPS drifter data with information recorded using current meters and water level sensors. This study builds on existing research between Plymouth and the RNLI and, for the first time, uses images captured at the beach to provide a comprehensive picture of the threats posed by rip currents. Gerd Masselink, Professor of Coastal Geomorphology at the University of Plymouth, said: "It is possible to use the visually-observed wave breaking patterns to better understand why some surf zone conditions are more hazardous to bathers than others. This new information provides a useful means by which lifeguards on the beach can assess the hazard posed by a beach at a given time, which could result in more lives being saved."


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Research by the Universities of Southampton and Plymouth has found a new link between breaking waves and the hazard posed by rip currents. The research provides a better understanding why some surf zone conditions are more hazardous than others and could result in more lives being saved. Hazardous rip currents are features on many beaches worldwide, and are thought to account for 68 percent of rescue events involving the Royal National Lifeboat Institution's beach lifeguards in the UK. The study, which also involved researchers from Macquarie University (Sydney, AUS), and Deltares (Netherlands), used a combination of video imagery and in-situ rip current measurements at Perranporth Beach in Cornwall, which is well known for experiencing dangerous rips. The researchers found that when waves break across the end of a rip channel, it in effect closes the channel and stops the currents from travelling far offshore. Crucially, however, they found that the absence of breaking waves across the channel promotes the formation of a much more hazardous rip current that can extend far offshore. "For the first time, we combined images captured by cameras at the beach to detect wave breaking and GPS drifters to track the rip currents to better understand what drives rip dynamics. We used the images to identify whether the waves were breaking across the end of the rip channel, or not, and worked out what behavior the GPS drifters in the rip current were exhibiting at those times," said Sebastian Pitman, a PhD student in Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, who led the study. "The combination of video imagery and GPS allowed us to identify that when wave breaking occurred across the rip channel, the rip current was often prevented from flowing far offshore. This would mean that anyone trapped in the current would be kept relatively close to the beach. However, when the waves ceased to break across the channel, we noticed that the rip currents would instead flow far offshore, presenting a much greater hazard to swimmers," said Ivan Haigh, co-author, also of Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton. This is the latest research into rip currents involving the University of Plymouth, with previous work having focussed on combining GPS drifter data with information recorded using current meters and water level sensors. This study builds on existing research between Plymouth and the RNLI and, for the first time, uses images captured at the beach to provide a comprehensive picture of the threats posed by rip currents. "It is possible to use the visually-observed wave breaking patterns to better understand why some surf zone conditions are more hazardous to bathers than others. This new information provides a useful means by which lifeguards on the beach can assess the hazard posed by a beach at a given time, which could result in more lives being saved," said Gerd Masselink, professor of coastal heomorphology at the University of Plymouth.


Woodward E.,University of Plymouth | Beaumont E.,University of Plymouth | Russell P.,University of Plymouth | Wooler A.,Previously of Royal National Lifeboat Institution | Macleod R.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

Rip currents are responsible for 67% of all individuals rescued by lifeguards on UK beaches, representing the greatest environmental risk to water users. There are currently no measures of human awareness of rip currents in the UK, and the worldwide research on human behavioural aspects surrounding rip currents is a small emerging research area. In the last few years the physical understanding of rip current behaviour has been much improved by studies using GPS floats. The aim of this study is to discover the key demographic characteristics of beach users caught in rip currents and the spatiotemporal variation in the UK by analysing the Royal National Lifeboat Institutions lifeguard rip current incident data for 2006 to 2011. The results show male teenagers (aged 13-17 years) are the most likely demographic to be involved in a rip incident., In addition, people bodyboarding, and people in non-patrolled areas of the beach are at higher risk. Rip incidents are most common on the popular Atlantic-facing beaches of north Devon and Cornwall where low-tide bar-rip morphology enhances rip current activity, presenting a major hazard to beach users. This study presents a significant insight into rip victim demographics, identifying key target audiences for future awareness campaigns and rip education schemes. It also provides a benchmark for further research into the investigation of why specific demographics are getting caught in rips by understanding the behaviour of these groups. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013.


Page J.,University of Portsmouth | Bates V.,University of Portsmouth | Long G.,University of Portsmouth | Dawes P.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution | Tipton M.,University of Portsmouth
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics | Year: 2011

Purpose: Lifeguard surveillance is critical to any water safety program. This study determined the rates of detection of a 'drowning' individual by beach lifeguards, and whether scanning patterns differed between groups of lifeguards (experienced/less experienced, male/females, surf/non-surf). It was hypothesized that (1) Experienced lifeguards would perform better and produce less fixations of longer duration than inexperienced; (2) A greater detection rate would be seen in a 'biased' compared to a 'non-biased' condition; (3) There would be no differences between the surf compared to non-surf lifeguards, and male compared to female lifeguards with regard to scanning patterns or detection rates. Method: A mobile eye tracker was worn by each lifeguard (n=69, 52 males, 17 females) as they watched 12min of animated beach footage projected onto a screen in two conditions: a. 'Non-biased' (uniform scene). b. 'Biased' (uniform scene with presumed 'rip' on right side of screen). The lifeguards were informed that at any point during the 12min a person may or may not disappear and to highlight if and where, a person disappeared. Unknown to the participants, a person always disappeared after 10min at the same position within, but not between, conditions. Data were analysed using anova, t-tests and binary logistic regression. Results: Experienced lifeguards were five times (p<0.05) more likely to detect the drowning individual than inexperienced lifeguards. There were no significant differences between the visual search patterns of the groups between 2 and 10min. The detection rates averaged 16% in the non-biased condition and 29% in biased conditions (p<0.1), probably because lifeguards searched more on the right of the water. Furthermore, 40% (biased) and 42% (non-biased) did not detect the person disappearing, even though they fixated in the correct location in the 3.5s before the person completely disappeared. This suggests that some lifeguards may have fixated on, but not processed, relevant visual data ('looked at but not seen'). 25% (biased) and 36% (non-biased) of the lifeguards did not fixate in the location of the person disappearing, but were able to identify their disappearance. Conclusions: Visual search patterns used by lifeguards can be altered by instruction and detection rates improve as a consequence. Peripheral vision is used effectively by some lifeguards, but cue extraction may be problematic for others. © 2011 The College of Optometrists.


Halswell P.K.,University of Southampton | Wilson P.A.,University of Southampton | Taunton D.J.,University of Southampton | Austen S.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2016

High-Speed planing Craft (HSC) expose their crew to high levels of vibration that regularly exceed the daily exposure limit set out by European directive 2002/44/EU; highest accelerations occur during a slam. Many Whole Body Vibration (WBV) reduction strategies are being researched (e.g. suspension seats), but Coats et al. (2003) and Coe et al. (2013) concluded that a combination of methods is required to reduce the level sufficiently to meet legislation. This paper describes an experimental investigation to determine whether hydroelasticity can affect the WBV of HSC using quasi-2D and full-scale drop tests. The quasi-2D tests revealed that hydroelasticity affected peak acceleration and Vibration Dosage Value (VDV), and that a wooden hull generated higher magnitude WBV than fabric hulls. The full-scale drop tests employed an inflatable lifeboat and the internal pressures of the sponson and keel controlled the hydroelasticity. The full-scale results showed that peak acceleration and VDV reduced while decreasing the internal pressures at the transom and crew locations; however, peak acceleration and VDV increased at the bow. Furthermore, the ability of fabric structures to reduce the mass of HSC is discussed. Incorporating hydroelasticity shows potential, alongside other reduction strategies, to alleviate human exposure to vibration of HSC. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Perez A.T.,Bournemouth University | Fatjo G.G.-A.,Bournemouth University | Hadfield M.,Bournemouth University | Austen S.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2011

A friction model is developed by considering the Coulomb friction model, a probabilistic approach of wear prediction, the kinematics of the pin-on-disc configuration and the elastic theory of bending. The model estimates the magnitude and direction of the frictional force, the pin torque, the probability of asperity contact and the real area of contact distinguishing between the part due to elastic and plastic asperity contacts respectively. Therefore, the proposed model is suitable for the prediction of adhesive wear. It can be applied to metal contacts for conductance characterisation through the plastically deformed asperities which is of great interest for electrical contact resistance studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Eyre P.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution | Austen S.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
RINA, Royal Institution of Naval Architects - International Conference on SURV 2013, Surveillance Search and Rescue Craft | Year: 2013

A new class of carriage launched all weather lifeboat, the Shannon Class, has been developed by the RNLI to meet the most demanding conditions around the coast of the UK and Ireland. The 13 metre, 18 tonne vessel has an operational speed of 25 knots with the ability to operate safely at high speed in rough conditions. This paper presents some of the significant areas of development within the design of this class. A new hull form has been developed specifically to meet the operational envelope of a modem all weather lifeboat and to incorporate a twin waterjet propulsion package. The hull form has been designed specifically to allow safe operation of the vessel at high speeds in rough weather. Particular attention has been given to protect the volunteer crew from harmful slamming accelerations often experienced on high speed vessels. An overview of the vessel's general arrangement, machinery layout and onboard systems are also given with insight into the design process including the adoption of Lean design and manufacturing principals. The operational and technical trials of the vessel will are also discussed. © 2013: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.

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