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Poole, United Kingdom

Thomas B.,Bournemouth University | Hadfield M.,Bournemouth University | Austen S.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Tribology Transactions | Year: 2010

The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) provides search and rescue cover along the UK and RoI coast using a variety of lifeboats and launch techniques. In locations where there is no natural harbor it is necessary to use a slipway to launch the lifeboat into the sea. Lifeboat slipway stations consist of an initial section where the boat is held on rollers followed by an inclined keelway lined with low-friction composite materials; the lifeboat is released from the top of the slipway and proceeds under its own weight into the water. The lifeboat is later recovered using a winch line. It is common to manually apply grease to the composite slipway lining before each launch and recovery in order to ensure sufficiently low friction for successful operation. With the introduction of the Tamarclass lifeboat it is necessary to upgrade existing boathouses and standardize slipway operational procedures to ensure consistent operation. The higher contact pressures associated with the new lifeboat have led to issues of high friction and wear on the composite slipway linings and the manual application of grease to reduce friction is to be restricted due to environmental impact and cost factors. This article presents a multidisciplinary approach to modeling slipway panel wear and friction using tribometer testing in conjunction with finite element analysis and slipway condition surveys to incorporate common real-world effects such as panel misalignments. Finally, it is shown that a freshwater lubrication system is effective, reducing cost and environmental impacts while maintaining good friction and wear performance. © Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers. Source


Woodward E.,University of Plymouth | Beaumont E.,University of Plymouth | Russell P.,University of Plymouth | MacLeod R.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education | Year: 2015

Rip currents present a severe hazard for water users on beaches and account for the greatest cause of lifeguard rescues worldwide. The physical dynamics of rip currents are well studied, and more recently, the social and behavioral science research surrounding human interaction of rip currents has been expanding, providing a social perspective and feeding into public education strategies. The aim of this study was to assess levels of public understanding of rip currents and beach safety on UK beaches. A questionnaire was undertaken (N = 407) during the summer of 2012 on four beaches. Beach users had a poor knowledge of rip currents (n = 263), but those who have been caught in a rip before have a higher level of knowledge. Conversely, beach users had a good understanding of what the beach safety flags indicated (n = 314), and most people complied with this flag system (n = 339). In addition, those previously educated on rip currents had a higher knowledge, and lifeguards proved to be the most effective form of education. The study presents an insight into UK beach users' knowledge of rip currents and provides more evidence with which to pilot a rip current education scheme within the UK. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Woodward E.,University of Plymouth | Beaumont E.,University of Plymouth | Russell P.,University of Plymouth | Wooler A.,Previously of Royal National Lifeboat Institution | Macleod R.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

Rip currents are responsible for 67% of all individuals rescued by lifeguards on UK beaches, representing the greatest environmental risk to water users. There are currently no measures of human awareness of rip currents in the UK, and the worldwide research on human behavioural aspects surrounding rip currents is a small emerging research area. In the last few years the physical understanding of rip current behaviour has been much improved by studies using GPS floats. The aim of this study is to discover the key demographic characteristics of beach users caught in rip currents and the spatiotemporal variation in the UK by analysing the Royal National Lifeboat Institutions lifeguard rip current incident data for 2006 to 2011. The results show male teenagers (aged 13-17 years) are the most likely demographic to be involved in a rip incident., In addition, people bodyboarding, and people in non-patrolled areas of the beach are at higher risk. Rip incidents are most common on the popular Atlantic-facing beaches of north Devon and Cornwall where low-tide bar-rip morphology enhances rip current activity, presenting a major hazard to beach users. This study presents a significant insight into rip victim demographics, identifying key target audiences for future awareness campaigns and rip education schemes. It also provides a benchmark for further research into the investigation of why specific demographics are getting caught in rips by understanding the behaviour of these groups. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013. Source


Jones J.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution | Jackson J.,University of Northampton | Tudor T.,University of Northampton | Bates M.,University of Northampton
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2012

Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of £132 000. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Perez A.T.,Bournemouth University | Fatjo G.G.-A.,Bournemouth University | Hadfield M.,Bournemouth University | Austen S.,Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2011

A friction model is developed by considering the Coulomb friction model, a probabilistic approach of wear prediction, the kinematics of the pin-on-disc configuration and the elastic theory of bending. The model estimates the magnitude and direction of the frictional force, the pin torque, the probability of asperity contact and the real area of contact distinguishing between the part due to elastic and plastic asperity contacts respectively. Therefore, the proposed model is suitable for the prediction of adhesive wear. It can be applied to metal contacts for conductance characterisation through the plastically deformed asperities which is of great interest for electrical contact resistance studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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