Royal Military College of Canada
Kingston, Canada

The Royal Military College of Canada, RMC, or RMCC , is the military college of the Canadian Forces, and is a degree-granting university creating military officers. RMC was established in 1876 and is the only federal institution in Canada with degree granting powers. The Royal Military College of Canada Degrees Act, 1959 empowers the college to confer degrees in arts, science, and engineering. Programmes are available at the undergraduate and graduate levels on site through traditional studies and by distance learning through the Division of Continuing Studies.Located on Point Frederick, a 41-hectare peninsula in Kingston, Ontario, the college is a blend of older, historic buildings and modern academic, athletic, and dormitory facilities. Officer cadets are trained in academics, officership, athletics, and bilingualism . These are what the Canadian Armed Forces consider to be the four pillars of success in the military. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 10, 2017

There were empty cans of Mountain Dew and Monster Energy everywhere. Despite the pile of energy drinks, there was a surprising calm in the room as I stood by two dozen cadets at the US Military Academy at West Point. They were tasked with building a server and protecting it from breaches by the National Security Agency for a full week. With a lifetime of research -- watching movies about cyberwarfare -- I figured I was all set for this assignment. But there was no dramatic music, no people running around and yelling about "cyber nukes" -- whatever those are. It looked like a normal office, like the one I'm sitting in as I write this. There wasn't even a sweeping camera shot of all the action. Instead, four groups of cadets sat around rows of laptops at the ready. There was the Web Services team, to make sure their websites were up and running; the Web and Forums team, which moderates what goes on in their servers; the Network Monitoring team, which stands guard; and the Strike Team, which takes action to combat breaches. The pace picked up a bit as the NSA sent over a task: creating a password restriction in the next two hours. But even then, there was no dramatic rush or screens filled with flowing rivers of green code. The most noteworthy part of the attack? URLs like "" and "" Those names sound goofy, but the military is taking its cyberdefense capabilities seriously. This exercise, which is held annually at West Point, is part of an increased focus in military academies to train experts against attacks in the future. After all, cyberwarfare is an increasing concern on and off the battlefield, and the US has already gotten a glimpse of what attacks could look like in the future. The 2016 presidential election was heavily influenced by Russian hackers, while Chinese hackers stole 22 million social security numbers from a federal database in 2015 and North Korean hackers were blamed for a massive breach at Sony the year before. With experts predicting threats like bombings caused by distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, it's become more important to train future officers to defend online. "It's certainly a great emphasis. We see the rise of the cyber branch with the United States Army," Major Michael Petullo, an assistant professor at West Point's military academy said. "Individual privacy and freedom is all pending these days on cyber." That mentality extends beyond the Army's own troops. Last month, the US Air Force issued its "Hack the Air Force" challenge to security specialists around the world, offering hefty rewards to anyone who can break into its public websites. It's a follow-up to challenges like "Hack the Army" and "Hack the Pentagon," in which bug bounty hunters cashed in on $75,000 by identifying the Pentagon's vulnerabilities. It only took five minutes for the first bounty to come during the Army challenge. Since 2000, the NSA has been testing cadets at military schools by "hacking" servers in their classrooms for an entire week. In April, the Naval Academy, the Coast Guard Academy, the Marine Academy, the Military Academy and the Royal Military College of Canada joined in the Cyber Defense Exercise, looking to see who could best fend off the NSA's cyberattacks. As part of the challenge, NSA hackers make up the "Red Cell" and teams from each academy make up "Blue Cells." The NSA is allowed to attack at all times, while the cyberdefense teams are restricted from doing anything between 10 p.m. and 9 a.m. To make things even harder, there's the Gray Cell, bots meant to emulate careless users who hackers typically target. In one Gray Cell scenario, an important politician would come into an Army base with a laptop that potentially has a virus on it. The cadets have to clean off the device and remove any malware before the Gray Cell connects onto the servers. Do you think that's far-fetched? Vice President Mike Pence and Clinton campaign manager John Podesta probably don't. "The threat is real and gets more and more advanced every day. It evolves very rapidly," NSA Red Cell lead Curtis Williams said. The cadets have to prevent the NSA from stealing password tokens, protect their servers from shutdown and block out intruders. The NSA's break-in is inevitable, so the competition becomes about who can defend their servers the longest. "They end up getting in, but they get into everyone's," said Mitch DeRidder, captain of the Army's Blue Cell. "They're closing in as time goes on." After DeRidder assigned the duties for the NSA's password challenge, the room fell quiet again. Attacks still flowed in from the NSA, but they were easy to spot because of their goofy names. The cadets were supposed to monitor for these fake names and block them. Sometimes, it wasn't as obvious as a pooploopery. One ping had come in from lyft.cpm, a rip-off of the popular ride-sharing app. "They're hoping that we make typos," said Conner Wissman, on the Army's Service team. "They're trying to throw us off because every second of blocking these count." The team members' eyes glazed over while watching scores of URLs coming into the servers, a boring but necessary task. "There's nothing I can do, I kind of just sit here and watch," Wissman said. On the Web and Forums team, one cadet folded paper into a small boat. Another cadet, manning the servers, took the boat apart and made a paper hat. By the end of the week, the Navy had won the exercise, but the cadets at West Point weren't defeated. In their loss, they'll be able to learn what went wrong and how to improve for when the nation's cybersecurity is at stake. For future exercises, the NSA wants the academies to be able to collaborate. It also expects to add additional challenges like protecting other connected devices -- think smart appliances and light bulbs. The cadets already see the value in these challenges. "Cyber is one of the biggest national security threats," DeRidder said. "Having trained NSA personnel attacking us, that definitely helped prepare us for the future." It's Complicated: This is dating in the age of apps. Having fun yet? These stories get to the heart of the matter. Tech Enabled: CNET chronicles tech's role in providing new kinds of accessibility.

TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - May 04, 2017) - After collecting over 4.3 million Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) messages from aircraft since it launched in September 2016, the 3.5 kilogram 10x10x34cm CanX-7 nanosatellite deployed its four drag sails yesterday evening. CanX-7 was built by Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS). Each drag sail has an area of approximately one square meter. The sails are intended to decrease the ballistic coefficient of the satellite and use atmospheric drag to accelerate orbital decay. The drag sail technology is important for nano- and microsatellites whose low Earth orbital presence would exceed the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) guidelines that limit such presence to 25 years after end of mission. "With SFL's innovative drag sail technology verified on orbit, the door is opened to using this technology on future missions where compliance to IADC guidelines would not otherwise be possible," says Robert Zee, Director of SFL. "Such compliance is essential to ensuring that space debris is mitigated for the world. It is also a critical component in satisfying regulatory bodies so that small satellite missions may proceed uninhibited." CanX-7 completed a seven-month campaign to collect ADS-B messages from aircraft to demonstrate Canada's first ADS-B data collection from space. With that phase of the mission successfully completed, the drag sails were deployed to begin the second phase of the mission. The sequential phases were intended to emulate an operational mission followed by deorbiting. A key component in the drag sail technology demonstration was long-term stowage of the drag sail modules in space without interrupting or affecting the operational mission. "We want our drag sail technology to be compact and non-intrusive to a satellite's main mission. This will ensure wide acceptance and easy adoption by future microsatellite missions," says Zee. "The four drag sails were deployed across the two passes this evening (two sails per pass)," reported Brad Cotten, CanX-7 Project Manager on May 3. "All telemetry is nominal and indicates that each sail is fully deployed. The deployment was also confirmed optically from the ground." During this final phase of the CanX-7 mission, the deorbiting process will be closely monitored via the SFL ground station in Toronto. Orbital decay rate will be determined and compared against pre-launch simulation results. "We are thankful to our sponsors that helped make this mission successful for the benefit of Canada and the world, including Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, COM DEV, Royal Military College of Canada, and the Canadian Space Agency," said Zee. SFL builds big performance into smaller, lower cost satellites. Small satellites built by SFL consistently push the performance envelope and disrupt the traditional cost paradigm. Satellites are built with advanced power systems, stringent attitude control and high-volume data capacity that are striking relative to the budget. SFL arranges launches globally and maintains a mission control center accessing ground stations worldwide. The pioneering and barrier breaking work of SFL is a key enabler to tomorrow's cost aggressive satellite constellations.

Greenwood M.T.,Royal Military College of Canada | Ludovico P.,University of Minho
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2010

The ease by which yeast can be manipulated in conjunction with their similarities to cells of more complex metazoans makes many yeast species, particularly Saccharomyces cerevisae, very attractive models for the study of conserved evolutionary processes that occur in eukaryotes. The ability to functionally express heterologous genes in these cells has allowed the development of countless new and elegant approaches leading to detailed structure-function analysis of numerous mammalian genes. Of these, the most informative have been the studies involving the analysis of regulators that have no direct or obvious sequence orthologue in yeast, including members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, caspases and tumour suppressors. Here we review the field and provide evidence that these studies have served to further understand mammalian apoptosis. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Petit V.,West Chester University | Wade G.A.,Royal Military College of Canada
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

In this paper we describe a Bayesian statistical method designed to infer the magnetic properties of stars observed using high-resolution circular spectropolarimetry in the context of large surveys. This approach is well suited for analysing stars for which the stellar rotation period is not known, and therefore the rotational phases of the observations are ambiguous. The model assumes that the magnetic observations correspond to a dipole oblique rotator, a situation commonly encountered in intermediate- and high-mass stars. Using reasonable assumptions regarding the model parameter prior probability density distributions, the Bayesian algorithm determines the posterior probability densities corresponding to the surface magnetic field geometry and strength by performing a comparison between the observed and computed Stokes V profiles. Based on the results of numerical simulations, we conclude that this method yields a useful estimate of the surface dipole field strength based on a small number (i.e. one or two) of observations. On the other hand, the method provides only weak constraints on the dipole geometry. The odds ratio, a parameter computed by the algorithm that quantifies the relative appropriateness of the magnetic dipole model versus the non-magnetic model, provides a more sensitive diagnostic of the presence of weak magnetic signals embedded in noise than traditional techniques. To illustrate the application of the technique to real data, we analyse seven ESPaDOnS and Narval observations of the early B-type magnetic star LPOri. Insufficient information is available to determine the rotational period of the star and therefore the phase of the data; hence traditional modelling techniques fail to infer the dipole strength. In contrast, the Bayesian method allows a robust determination of the dipole polar strength, G. © 2011 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS.

Durbin D.J.,Royal Military College of Canada | Malardier-Jugroot C.,Royal Military College of Canada
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

Hydrogen gas is increasingly studied as a potential replacement for fossil fuels because fossil fuel supplies are depleting rapidly and the devastating environmental impacts of their use can no longer be ignored. H2 is a promising replacement energy storage molecule because it has the highest energy density of all common fuels by weight. One area in which replacing fossil fuels will have a large impact is in automobiles, which currently operate almost exclusively on gasoline. Due to the size and weight constraints in vehicles, on board hydrogen must be stored in a small, lightweight system. This is particularly challenging for hydrogen because it has the lowest energy density of common fuels by volume. Therefore, a lot of research is invested in finding a compact, safe, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient method of H 2 storage. Mechanical compression as well as storage in chemical hydrides and absorption to carbon substrates has been investigated. An overview of all systems including the current research and potential benefits and issue are provided in the present paper. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wu X.,Royal Military College of Canada
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

Direct numerical simulation was performed on an incompressible, smooth flat-plate boundary layer at unit molecular Prandtl number and constant surface temperature under free-stream periodically passing turbulent planar wakes over the momentum thickness Reynolds number range of ≤80 Re⊖ ≤1850. This inhomogeneous free-stream wake perturbation source with mean deficit differs markedly from the isotropic turbulent patch used in the previous studies of Wu & Moin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 630, 2009, p. 5; Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, 085105). Preponderance of hairpin vortices is observed in both the transitional and turbulent regions of the boundary layer. In particular, the internal structure of merged turbulent spots is a hairpin forest; the internal structure of infant turbulent spots is a hairpin packet. Although more chaotic in the turbulent region, numerous hairpin vortices are readily detected in both the near-wall and outer regions of the boundary layer up to Re = 1850. This suggests that the hairpin vortices in the higher-Reynolds-number region are not simply the aged hairpin forests convected from the upstream transitional region. Temperature iso-surfaces in the companion thermal boundary layer are found to be a useful tracer in identifying boundary-layer hairpin vortex structures. Total shear stress overshoots wall shear stress in the transitional region and the excess relaxes gradually in the downstream turbulent region. This overshoot is shown to be associated with a localized streamwise acceleration of the streamwise velocity component. Breakdown of the wake-perturbed laminar boundary layer is closely related to the formation of hairpin packets out of quasi-streamwise vortices. Mean and second-order statistics are in good agreement with previous data on the standard turbulent boundary layer. Downstream of transition, normalized root-mean-square (r.m.s.) wall-shear-stress intensity shows almost no variation with Re, whereas normalized r.m.s. wall-pressure intensity increases slightly. Taken together with the previous results of Wu & Moin, the generality of the following three phenomena in quasi-standard boundary layers can be reasonably established, namely, preponderance of hairpin vortices in the transitional as well as in the turbulent regions up to Re = 1850, transitional total shear stress overshoot, and a laminar-layer breakdown process closely tied to the formation of hairpin packets. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Levesque L.,Royal Military College of Canada
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

Temperature of water-based substances is investigated by aiming a pulsed CO2 laser beam at the water-air surface. This method of controlling temperature is believed to be flexible in medical applications as it avoids the use of thermal devices, which are often cumbersome and generate rather larger temperature swing with time. The control of temperature in this laser method is modeled by the heat conduction equation. In this investigation, it is assumed that the energy delivered by the CO2 laser is confined within a very thin surface layer of roughly 10 μm. It is shown that the temperature can be very well controlled by a CO2 laser at a steady temperature, and we demonstrate that the method can be adapted to work in tandem with another laser beam. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Sabat R.G.,Royal Military College of Canada
Optics Express | Year: 2013

Various superimposed chirped relief gratings, acting as diffracting holographic lenses, were photo-inscribed on azo-polymer films upon exposure to the interference pattern of a plane and a curved laser light wavefronts. Depending on the configuration used, this resulted in incident light being focused independently of polarization along the 0th or 1st diffracted order of the grating. The focal point and focalization angle of the resulting holographic lenses were easily tuned during the fabrication process. Furthermore, a dual-focus chirped holographic lens grating was fabricated and shown to exhibit a far-field interference pattern. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Roberge V.,Royal Military College of Canada | Tarbouchi M.,Royal Military College of Canada | Labonte G.,Royal Military College of Canada
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2013

The development of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is of high interest to many governmental and military organizations around the world. An essential aspect of UAV autonomy is the ability for automatic path planning. In this paper, we use the genetic algorithm (GA) and the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to cope with the complexity of the problem and compute feasible and quasi-optimal trajectories for fixed wing UAVs in a complex 3D environment, while considering the dynamic properties of the vehicle. The characteristics of the optimal path are represented in the form of a multiobjective cost function that we developed. The paths produced are composed of line segments, circular arcs and vertical helices. We reduce the execution time of our solutions by using the 'single-program, multiple-data' parallel programming paradigm and we achieve real-time performance on standard commercial off-the-shelf multicore CPUs. After achieving a quasi-linear speedup of 7.3 on 8 cores and an execution time of 10 s for both algorithms, we conclude that by using a parallel implementation on standard multicore CPUs, real-time path planning for UAVs is possible. Moreover, our rigorous comparison of the two algorithms shows, with statistical significance, that the GA produces superior trajectories to the PSO. © 2005-2012 IEEE.

Arsenault M.,Royal Military College of Canada
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2013

Most existing research on parallel cable-driven mechanisms has been performed while neglecting cable mass. However, those prior works that did take cable mass into account have shown that such a hypothesis may lead to significant errors in the analysis of these mechanisms. The research presented herein assesses the effect of neglecting cable mass in the analysis of a spatial parallel three-degree-of-freedom suspended cable-driven mechanism. The analysis is based on the elastic catenary model. The inverse displacement problem of the mechanism is solved numerically subject to constraints on the cable tensions and restrictions on cable drooping. This solution is then used in the numerical estimation of the mechanism workspace. The stiffness of the mechanism is evaluated throughout the workspace by mapping intuitive stiffness indices that are extracted from the stiffness matrix. Both the mechanism workspace and stiffness are found to be heavily influenced by cable sagging. The results obtained in this paper support the notion that the effect of cable sagging on a mechanism should be thoroughly assessed prior to pursuing a design based on the assumption of massless cables. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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