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Shimoni M.,Belgian Royal Military Academy | Crosetto M.,Institute of Geomatics | Lang S.,University of Salzburg | Bally P.,European Space Agency | Boubila F.,European Space Agency
International Journal of Digital Earth | Year: 2011

This article is aimed at providing a detailed description of the Flood Validation Exercise organised by the Independent Service Validation Group of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) RESPOND project. The aims of the validation exercise were: (1) providing a practical example of validation procedures in the frame of the GMES Emergency Response services; (2) executing a full-scale validation exercise able to cope with the requirements of an emergency service; and (3) better understanding the performances and limitations of Earth observation services for Flood Damage Mapping. This validation exercise is a first step of the main task to define the whole validation process for GMES services. When this is achieved, there will be knowledge concerning how well services meet the service specifications derived from the user needs. The present exercise has the purpose of gathering this knowledge. The output of this validation exercise can be used to characterise and qualify the performance and timeliness of Crisis and Damage Mapping Services. This paper summarises the methodology for the flood exercise validation and the results of product validation and inter-comparison. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Knaepen K.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Marusic U.,University of Primorska | Crea S.,Piaggio | Rodriguez Guerrero C.D.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | And 8 more authors.
Human Movement Science | Year: 2015

Walking with a lower limb prosthesis comes at a high cognitive workload for amputees, possibly affecting their mobility, safety and independency. A biocooperative prosthesis which is able to reduce the cognitive workload of walking could offer a solution. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether different levels of cognitive workload can be assessed during symmetrical, asymmetrical and dual-task walking and to identify which parameters are the most sensitive. Twenty-four healthy subjects participated in this study. Cognitive workload was assessed through psychophysiological responses, physical and cognitive performance and subjective ratings. The results showed that breathing frequency and heart rate significantly increased, and heart rate variability significantly decreased with increasing cognitive workload during walking (p<. .05). Performance measures (e.g., cadence) only changed under high cognitive workload. As a result, psychophysiological measures are the most sensitive to identify changes in cognitive workload during walking. These parameters reflect the cognitive effort necessary to maintain performance during complex walking and can easily be assessed regardless of the task. This makes them excellent candidates to feed to the control loop of a biocooperative prosthesis in order to detect the cognitive workload. This information can then be used to adapt the robotic assistance to the patient's cognitive abilities. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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