Kelly J.D.,University College London |
Dudderidge T.J.,University College London |
Dudderidge T.J.,The Royal Marsden National Health Service NHS Foundation Trust |
Wollenschlaeger A.,University College London |
And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Background: Urinary biomarkers for bladder cancer detection are constrained by inadequate sensitivity or specificity. Here we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Mcm5, a novel cell cycle biomarker of aberrant growth, alone and in combination with NMP22. Methods: 1677 consecutive patients under investigation for urinary tract malignancy were recruited to a prospective blinded observational study. All patients underwent ultrasound, intravenous urography, cystoscopy, urine culture and cytologic analysis. An immunofluorometric assay was used to measure Mcm5 levels in urine cell sediments. NMP22 urinary levels were determined with the FDA-approved NMP22® Test Kit. Results: Genito-urinary tract cancers were identified in 210/1564 (13%) patients with an Mcm5 result and in 195/1396 (14%) patients with an NMP22 result. At the assay cut-point where sensitivity and specificity were equal, the Mcm5 test detected primary and recurrent bladder cancers with 69% sensitivity (95% confidence interval = 62-75%) and 93% negative predictive value (95% CI = 92-95%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Mcm5 was 0.75 (95% CI = 0.71-0.79) and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.67-0.77) for NMP22. Importantly, Mcm5 combined with NMP22 identified 95% (79/83; 95% CI = 88-99%) of potentially life threatening diagnoses (i.e. grade 3 or carcinoma in situ or stage ≥pT1) with high specificity (72%, 95% CI = 69-74%). Conclusions: The Mcm5 immunoassay is a non-invasive test for identifying patients with urothelial cancers with similar accuracy to the FDA-approved NMP22 ELISA Test Kit. The combination of Mcm5 plus NMP22 improves the detection of UCC and identifies 95% of clinically significant disease. Trials of a commercially developed Mcm5 assay suitable for an end-user laboratory alongside NMP22 are required to assess their potential clinical utility in improving diagnostic and surveillance care pathways. © 2012 Kelly et al.
PubMed | Cancer Research UK Research Institute, The Royal Marsden National Health Service NHS Foundation Trust, Epic Sciences, Inc., Genentech and Core Diagnostics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of cancer | Year: 2015
PTEN gene loss occurs frequently in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and may drive progression through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Here, we developed a novel CTC-based assay to determine PTEN status and examined the correlation between PTEN status in CTCs and matched tumour tissue samples.PTEN gene status in CTCs was evaluated on an enrichment-free platform (Epic Sciences) by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). PTEN status in archival and fresh tumour tissue was evaluated by FISH and immunohistochemistry.Peripheral blood was collected from 76 patients. Matched archival and fresh cancer tissue was available for 48 patients. PTEN gene status detected in CTCs was concordant with PTEN status in matched fresh tissues and archival tissue in 32 of 38 patients (84%) and 24 of 39 patients (62%), respectively. CTC counts were prognostic (continuous, P=0.001). PTEN loss in CTCs associated with worse survival in univariate analysis (HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.17-3.62; P=0.01) and with high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metastatic CRPC patients.Our results illustrate the potential use of CTCs as a non-invasive, real-time liquid biopsy to determine PTEN gene status. The prognostic and predictive value of PTEN in CTCs warrants investigation in CRPC clinical trials of PI3K/AKT-targeted therapies.