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PubMed | Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital Manchester
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical case reports | Year: 2015

Intrathoracic lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is classically of T-cell lineage, but these cases of pleural B-cell LBL suggest that this is not always the case. Despite the clinical challenges involved every attempt should be made to secure a biopsy and histological diagnosis, as we move into an era of lineage-directed therapies.

van Kuilenburg A.B.P.,Metabolic | Dobritzsch D.,Karolinska Institutet | Meijer J.,Metabolic | Meinsma R.,Metabolic | And 17 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2010

Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) is the second enzyme of the pyrimidine degradation pathway and catalyses the ring opening of 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine. To date, only 11 individuals have been reported suffering from a complete DHP deficiency. Here, we report on the clinical, biochemical and molecular findings of 17 newly identified DHP deficient patients as well as the analysis of the mutations in a three-dimensional framework. Patients presented mainly with neurological and gastrointestinal abnormalities and markedly elevated levels of 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Analysis of DPYS, encoding DHP, showed nine missense mutations, two nonsense mutations, two deletions and one splice-site mutation. Seventy-one percent of the mutations were located at exons 5-8, representing 41% of the coding sequence. Heterologous expression of 11 mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli showed that all but two missense mutations yielded mutant DHP proteins without significant activity. Only DHP enzymes containing the mutations p.R302Q and p.T343A possessed a residual activity of 3.9% and 49%, respectively. The crystal structure of human DHP indicated that the point mutations p.R490C, p.R302Q and p.V364M affect the oligomerization of the enzyme. In contrast, p.M70T, p.D81G, p.L337P and p.T343A affect regions near the di-zinc centre and the substrate binding site. The p.S379R and p.L7V mutations were likely to cause structural destabilization and protein misfolding. Four mutations were identified in multiple unrelated DHP patients, indicating that DHP deficiency may be more common than anticipated. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Fioredda F.,Giannina Gaslini Childrens Hospital | Iacobelli S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Van Biezen A.,Leiden University | Gaspar B.,University College London | And 26 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), but data on outcome are scarce.Wereport on the outcome of 136 SCN patients who underwent HSCT between 1990 and 2012 in European and Middle East centers. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 82%, and transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 17%. In multivariate analysis, transplants performed under the age of 10 years, in recent years, and from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors were associated with a significantly better OS. Frequency of graft failure was 10%. Cumulative incidence (day 190) of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade 2-4 was 21%. In multivariate analysis, HLA-matched related donor and prophylaxis with cyclosporine A and methotrexate were associated with lower occurrence of acute GVHD. Cumulative incidence (1 year) of chronic GVHD was 20%. No secondary malignancies occurred after a median follow-up of 4.6 years. These data show that the outcome of HSCT for SCN from HLA-matched donors, performed in recent years, in patients younger than 10 years is acceptable. Nevertheless, given the TRM, a careful selection of HSCT candidates should be undertaken. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

PubMed | Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital Manchester
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in endocrinology | Year: 2013

Neuroglycopenia is recognized to be associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in 26-44% of children with persistent congenital hyperinsulinism (P-CHI). The prevalence of abnormal neurodevelopment in transient CHI (T-CHI) is not known. We have aimed to investigate abnormal neurodevelopment and associated factors in T-CHI and P-CHI.A cohort of children with CHI (n=67, age 2.5-5years) was assessed at follow-up review and noted to have normal or abnormal (mild or severe) neurodevelopmental outcomes for the domains of speech and language, motor, and vision. Children were classified as P-CHI (n=33), if they had undergone surgery or remained on medical therapy, or T-CHI (n=34), if medical treatment for hypoglycemia was stopped.Overall, abnormal neurodevelopment was present in 26 (39%) children with CHI, of whom 18 (69%) were severe. Importantly, the incidence of abnormal neurodevelopment in T-CHI was similar to that in P-CHI (30 vs. 47% respectively, p=0.16). The prevalence of severe abnormal neurodevelopment in speech, motor, and vision domains was similar in both T-CHI and P-CHI children. For this cohort, we found that the severity of disease [based upon maximal diazoxide dose (odds ratio 95% confidence intervals) 1.3 (1.1; 1.5), p=0.03], and early presentation of CHI <7days following birth [5.9 (1.3; 27.8), p=0.02] were significantly associated with abnormal neurodevelopment. There was no significant association with gender, genotype, or the histopathological basis of CHI.Abnormal neurodevelopment was evident in one third of children with both T-CHI and P-CHI, early presentation and severe CHI being risk factors. Early recognition and rapid correction of hypoglycemia are advocated to avoid abnormal neurodevelopment in children with CHI.

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