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Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Bell G.,Royal Hospital for Sick Children
Paediatric Anaesthesia | Year: 2011

This review will attempt to put the various systems that allow clinicians to assess errors, omissions, or avoidable incidents into context and where possible, look for areas that deserve more or less attention and resource specifically for those of us who practice pediatric anesthesia. Different approaches will be contrasted with respect to their outputs in terms of positive impact on the practice of anesthesia. These approaches include audits by governmental organizations, national representative bodies, specialist societies, commissioned boards of inquiry, medicolegal sources, and police force investigations. Implementation strategies are considered alongside the reports as the reports cannot be considered end points themselves. Specific areas where pediatric anesthetics has failed to address recurring risk through any currently available tools will be highlighted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Wallace W.H.B.,Royal Hospital for Sick Children
Cancer | Year: 2011

With increasing numbers of survivors from cancer at a young age, the issue of fertility preservation has assumed greater importance. This review describes normal ovarian and testicular function and summarizes what is known about the effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the gonads and uterus. All young patients with cancer or leukemia should have their fertility prognosis discussed before the initiation of treatment. Sperm and embryo cryopreservation should be considered standard practice and be widely available for those at significant risk of infertility. For prepubertal girls, ovarian tissue cryopreservation should be considered if the risk of premature menopause is high, but for the prepubertal boy there are no established techniques in current practice. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Morton N.S.,Royal Hospital for Sick Children
Paediatric Anaesthesia | Year: 2012

Over the last 25 years, pediatric care has changed dramatically with increased survival after premature birth, more complex care, better outcomes, and reduced mortality. There is a better understanding of how pain pathways and receptor systems develop and also how to assess pain at different stages of development. The myth that children do not feel pain has been comprehensively dispelled. Safe analgesic dose regimens for neonates, infants, and children have been developed based upon a better understanding of developmental pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It is a myth that pain in children cannot be prevented or treated safely and effectively because of the risks of adverse effects and addiction. Large-scale prospective audits have clarified the safety profile and risk-benefit balance for different techniques. There is now a substantial evidence base supporting many techniques of postoperative and procedural pain management for all age-groups of children. Guidelines based upon systematic review of this evidence have been published and updated, but the real challenge is in implementation of accurate pain assessment and safe, effective pain management comprehensively to all children whatever the procedure, clinical setting, developmental stage of the child, or comorbidities. In developed countries, these are core topics in the education of all doctors and nurses who care for children, and they are integrated into clinical practice by acute pediatric pain teams for most hospitals. However, it is disappointing that many country's healthcare systems do not give pediatric pain management a priority and in many parts of the world there are no analgesics available. So pain-free healthcare is sadly lacking in many hospitals. My hope is that the current knowledge can be used more effectively to relieve the unnecessary suffering of children in the 21st century. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Anderson R.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Wallace W.H.B.,Royal Hospital for Sick Children
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2013

The accurate assessment of the ovarian reserve has long been a key goal in reproductive medicine. The recognition that serum antimüllerian hormone provides an indirect measure of the ovarian reserve has led to its rapid adoption in assisted conception, and wide exploration of its potential across the reproductive lifespan from the neonate to the menopause. In this short review we discuss its relationship with the ovarian reserve in its varied meanings, and in various contexts. These include in childhood and adolescence, and in the assessment of the impact of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. These therapies can adversely impact all aspects of female reproduction, including hypothalamic, pituitary, and ovarian hormonal activity, and the ability of the uterus to support a successful pregnancy. © 2013 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Shetty J.,Royal Hospital for Sick Children
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2015

The risk of seizures is at its highest during the neonatal period, and the most common cause of neonatal seizures is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). This enhanced vulnerability is caused by an imbalance in the expression of receptors for excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, which is age dependent. There has been progress in detecting the electrophysiological abnormalities associated with seizures using amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG). Data from animal studies indicate a variety of risk factors for seizures, but there are limited clinical data looking at the long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of seizures alone. Neonatal seizures are also associated with increased risk of further epileptic seizures; however, it is less clear whether or not this results from an underlying pathology, and whether or not seizures confer additional risk. Phenobarbital and phenytoin are still the first-line antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used to treat neonatal seizures, although they are effective in only one-third of affected infants. Furthermore, based on findings from animal studies, there are concerns regarding the risks associated with using these AEDs. Clinicians face a difficult challenge because, although seizures can be easily identified using aEEG, treatment options are limited, and there are uncertainties regarding treatment outcomes. There is a need to obtain long-term follow-up data, comparing groups of infants treated with or without current therapies. If these analyses indicate a definite benefit of treating neonatal seizures, then novel therapeutic approaches should be developed. © The Authors.

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