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Hobart, Australia

Khan F.S.,Royal Hobart Hospital Tasmania | Ali I.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Afridi U.K.,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan | Ishtiaq M.,University of Western Ontario | Mehmood R.,London Health Sciences Center
Hepatology International | Year: 2016

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers around the globe and third most fatal malignancy. Chronic liver disorders such as chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis often lead to the development of HCC. Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations are involved in the development of HCC. Genetic research sparked by recent developments in next generation sequencing has identified the frequency of genetic alterations that occur in HCC and has led to the identification of genetic hotspots. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic aberrations are strongly associated with the initiation and development of HCC. Various important genes encoding tumor suppressors including P16, RASSF1A, DLC-1, RUNX3 and SOCS-1 are targets of epigenetic dysregulation during the development of HCC. The present review discusses the importance of epigenetic regulations including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA mediated regulation of gene expression during tumorigenesis and their use as disease biomarkers. Furthermore, these epigenetic alterations have been discussed in relationship with promising therapeutic perspectives for HCC and related cancers. © 2016 Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver Source

Hunn B.H.M.,University of Tasmania | Martin W.G.,Royal Hobart Hospital Tasmania | Simpson Jr. S.,Menzies Research Institute | Mclean C.A.,Alfred Hospital
Pituitary | Year: 2014

Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis (IGH) is a rare inflammatory disease of the pituitary. There is debate in the scientific literature as to whether IGH represents a continuum of disease with lymphocytic hypophysitis or has a distinct pathogenesis. Due to the rare nature of the disease, previous descriptions have been limited to single case reports or small series. In the present study, a systematic review of the literature was performed for cases of IGH. 82 cases met inclusion criteria. Data was gathered on IGH clinical aspects, in order to elucidate any associations useful in determining pathogenesis, appropriate clinical treatment, or prognosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed on available data. Female sex was significantly associated with IGH (p < 0.0001). Fever (p = 0.002), nausea or vomiting at presentation (p = 0.031), and histological evidence of necrosis (p = 0.022) correlated with reduced time to presentation. Panhypopituitarism at presentation predicted need for long term hormone replacement (p = 0.014). Hyperprolactinaemia (p = 0.032), normal gonadal (p = 0.037) and thyroid axes (p = 0.001) were associated with reduced likelihood of long-term hormone replacement. Anorexia (p = 0.017), cold intolerance (p = 0.046), and fatigue (p = 0.0033) were associated with death from IGH. Patients who had excisional surgery alone trended towards increased rates of symptom resolution, compared with patients who received corticosteroids as an adjunct to excisional surgery (p = 0.11). This article details the first systematic review of IGH, and presents evidence for a female predilection of the disease. Implications for pathogenesis, and a suggested clinical approach are discussed. An online disease registry has been established to facilitate further IGH research. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

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