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Gaur S.,Royal Gwent Hospital Newport | Rajgopal A.,Royal Infirmary | Ashbee R.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust
Journal of Infection | Year: 2010

Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We report the first known case of CAPD peritonitis due to Fusarum dimerum successfully treated with antifungals and catheter removal. © 2010 The British Infection Society. Source


New K.J.,University of South Wales | Reilly M.E.,University of South Wales | Templeton K.,Royal Glamorgan Hospital | Ellis G.,Royal Glamorgan Hospital | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2013

Background The metabolic vasodilator mediating postexercise hypotension (PEH) is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests an exercise-induced reliance on pro-oxidant-stimulated vasodilation in normotensive young human subjects, but the role in the prehypertensive state is not known. Methods Nine prehypertensives (mean arterial pressure (MAP), 106±5mm Hg; 50 ± 10 years old) performed 30 minutes of cycle exercise and a nonexercise trial. Arterial distensibility was characterized by simultaneously recording upper-and lower-limb pulse wave velocity (PWV) via oscillometry. Systemic vascular resistance and conductance were determined by MAP/Q̇ and Q̇/MAP, respectively. Venous blood was assayed for indirect markers of oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH); spectrophotometry), plasma nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosothiols (fluorometry), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and angiotensin II (ANG-II) (radioimmunoassay). Results Exercise reduced MAP (6mm Hg) and vascular resistance (15%) at 60 minutes after exercise, whereas conductance was elevated (20%) (P < 0.05). The hypotension resulted in a lower MAP at 60 and 120 minutes after exercise compared with nonexercise (P < 0.05). Upper-limb PWV was also 18% lower after exercise compared with baseline (P < 0.05). Exercise increased LOOH coincident with the nadir in hypotension and vascular resistance but failed to affect plasma NO or S-nitrosothiols. Exercise-induced increases in LOOH were related to ANG-II (r = 0.97; P < 0.01) and complemented by elevated ANP concentrations. Conclusion s These data indicate attenuated vascular resistance after exercise with increased oxidative stress and unchanged NO. Whether free radicals are obligatory for PEH requires further investigation, although it seems that oxidative stress occurs during the hyperemia underlying PEH. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Williams G.M.G.,Bristol Royal Hospital for Children | Bredow M.,North Bristol NHS Trust | Barton J.,Bristol Royal Hospital for Children | Pryce R.,Royal Gwent Hospital Newport | Shield J.P.H.,University of Bristol
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2014

Article nine of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child states that 'Children must not be separated from their parents unless it is in the best interests of the child.' We describe the impact that placing a child into care can have on long-standing and intractable obesity when this is a component of a child safeguarding strategy. Significant weight loss was documented in a male adolescent following his placement into foster care due to emotional harm and neglect within his birth family. The child's body mass index (BMI) dropped from a peak of 45.6 to 35 over 18 months. We provide brief details of two further similar cases and outcomes. Childhood obesity is often not the sole concern during safeguarding proceedings. Removal from an 'obesogenic' home environment should be considered if failure by the parents/carers to address the obesity is a major cause for concern. It is essential that all other avenues have been explored before removing a child from his birth family. However, in certain circumstances we feel it may be justified. Source


Balwani M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Anderson K.E.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Bonkovsky H.L.,Wake forest University | Anstey A.V.,Royal Gwent Hospital Newport | And 18 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND Erythropoietic protoporphyria is a severe photodermatosis that is associated with acute phototoxicity. Patients with this condition have excruciating pain and a markedly reduced quality of life. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue, afamelanotide, to decrease pain and improve quality of life. METHODS We conducted two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of subcutaneous implants containing 16 mg of afamelanotide. Patients in the European Union (74 patients) and the United States (94 patients) were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive a subcutaneous implant containing either afamelanotide or placebo every 60 days (a total of five implants in the European Union study and three in the U.S study). The type and duration of sun exposure, number and severity of phototoxic reactions, and adverse events were recorded over the respective 180-day and 270-day study periods. Quality of life was assessed with the use of validated questionnaires. A subgroup of U.S. patients underwent photoprovocation testing. The primary efficacy end point was the number of hours of direct exposure to sunlight without pain. RESULTS In the U.S. study, the duration of pain-free time after 6 months was longer in the afamelanotide group (median, 69.4 hours, vs. 40.8 hours in the placebo group; P = 0.04). In the European Union study, the duration of pain-free time after 9 months was also longer in the afamelanotide group than in the placebo group (median, 6.0 hours vs. 0.8 hours; P = 0.005), and the number of phototoxic reactions was lower in the the afamelanotide group (77 vs. 146, P = 0.04). In both trials, quality of life improved with afamelanotide therapy. Adverse events were mostly mild; serious adverse events were not thought to be related to the study drug. CONCLUSIONS Afamelanotide had an acceptable side-effect and adverse-event profile and was associated with an increased duration of sun exposure without pain and improved quality of life in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Evans C.,University of Wales | Neale S.,University of Wales | Geen J.,Prince Charles Hospital | Jones G.,University of Wales | And 10 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2011

Age-and method-dependent plasma TSH reference intervals are essential for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism. However, accurate reference intervals for plasma TSH have not been adequately defined due to the difficulties in obtaining samples from a healthy paediatric population. To overcome the difficulties in generating such intervals we estimated method-dependent plasma TSH upper-reference intervals by determining the blood spot TSH upper-reference interval from newborn blood spot TSH screening data (N = 10,697) and then derived method-dependent conversion factors for blood spot TSH to plasma TSH concentration from paired-blood spot and plasma TSH measurements. The upper reference interval for blood spot TSH of 3.04 mU/L was obtained from the 97.5th centile of the selected data. Using experimentally-derived conversion factors, estimates of plasma TSH upper reference intervals of 7.6, 6.3, 7.3, 8.3 and 6.5 mU/L were obtained for the Siemens Centaur, Abbott Architect, Roche Elecsys E170, Siemens Immulite 2000 and Beckman access HYPERsensitive TSH assays respectively. These estimated method-dependent plasma TSH upper reference intervals will be of great practical use to clinicians to diagnose and to follow up infants found to have increased blood spot TSH concentrations identified by Newborn Screening programmes. © 2011 Informa Healthcare. Source

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