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Taylor J.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust | Glenn McCluggage W.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2015

Seromucinous neoplasms are a new category of ovarian epithelial tumor in the revised World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Female Reproductive Organs. Borderline variants are well described, but there have been few reports of seromucinous carcinomas. We report the clinicopathologic features in 19 cases of ovarian seromucinous carcinoma in patients aged 16 to 79 years (mean 47). In 16 cases, the neoplasm was unilateral and in 3 cases bilateral. The tumors ranged in size from 1.8 to 18 cm (mean 10.5 cm). The tumors were stage I (n=15), stage II (n=1), and stage III (n=3). The histologic features were highly variable both within and between individual tumors. The majority of neoplasms (12 cases) exhibited a predominant papillary architecture with lesser components of glandular, microglandular, and solid growth. A predominant glandular architecture was present in 6 cases, whereas 1 had a predominantly solid growth. A characteristic feature was an admixture of cell types. Most of the tumors (15 cases) were mainly composed of endocervical-like mucinous cells, whereas in 4 cases there was predominant endometrioid differentiation. Other cell types, present in varying proportions, included hobnail cells, eosinophilic cells, squamous cells, clear cells, and signet-ring cells. An infiltrate of neutrophil polymorphs was a prominent feature in most cases. Most cases also exhibited areas of microglandular architecture with cytoplasmic clearing and intraluminal polymorphs, the features closely resembling cervical microglandular hyperplasia. Areas of stromal hyalinization, adenofibromatous growth, and psammoma bodies were present in a minority of cases. Endometriosis was identified in the same ovary in 10 cases, and in 10 there was a component of seromucinous borderline tumor. Thirteen, 5, and 1 tumor were of grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively (using the FIGO grading system for endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus). A synchronous uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma was present in 1 case. Immunohistochemically, there was positive staining with CK7 (17/17 cases), estrogen receptor (16/16 cases), progesterone receptor (6/7 cases), CA125 (15/15 cases), PAX8 (8/8 cases), CEA (8/13 cases), CA19.9 (8/9 cases), and WT1 (2/13 cases). CK20 and CDX2 were negative in all cases tested (16 and 14, respectively). p53 showed "wild-type" staining in 4/4 cases, and p16 was focally positive in 5/5 cases. Follow-up information was available in 8 patients. Seven were alive with no evidence of disease (follow-up 3 to 74 mo), whereas 1 patient who initially presented with a stage IIB tumor died of disease at 192 months. Given the characteristic admixture of cell types and the overlapping morphologic features with low-grade serous, mucinous, and endometrioid neoplasms, the most appropriate categorization of seromucinous carcinomas is uncertain, but we believe they are best regarded as a distinct type of ovarian epithelial malignancy and are most similar to endometrioid adenocarcinomas. We recommend grading them in an analogous manner to ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Recent literature has suggested a dual pathway of ovarian serous carcinogenesis, with most serous carcinomas falling into 1 of 2 categories, low grade and high grade. These are considered to represent 2 distinct tumor types with a different underlying pathogenesis and associated with different molecular events, clinical behavior, and prognosis. Low-grade serous carcinoma is thought to evolve in many instances from a preexisting serous borderline tumor and cystadenoma. Given the distinct pathogenesis and different molecular events, it is expected that the coexistence of low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma would be rare or may even be mutually exclusive; moreover, there are very few reported examples in the literature. We report a series of 7 cases in patients aged 34 to 78 years in whom ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (4 cases, including 3 with associated serous borderline tumor), serous borderline tumor (2 cases), or seromucinous borderline tumor (1 case) was associated with a high-grade carcinoma, either high-grade serous (5 cases) or undifferentiated carcinoma (2 cases). The low-grade and high-grade components coexisted in the original neoplasm in 4 cases, and the high-grade component was present only in recurrence in 3 cases. In both instances, the undifferentiated carcinoma had a focal rhabdoid morphology, and alternative primary sites of tumor were excluded by a combination of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic parameters. We illustrate that low-grade serous carcinoma or serous borderline tumor ("low-grade" serous neoplasms) may rarely be associated with, and probably give rise to, a high-grade carcinoma, either high-grade serous or undifferentiated carcinoma. The coexistence of a low-grade serous neoplasm and undifferentiated carcinoma can be regarded as a form of dedifferentiation. p53 was diffusely positive in 4 of 6 high-grade carcinomas, which raises the possibility that secondary Tp53 mutation is important in high-grade transformation in some of these cases. WT1 was negative in the 2 undifferentiated carcinomas, and PAX8 was positive in 1, suggesting that the latter marker is more useful in helping to confirm a Mullerian origin in dedifferentiated low-grade serous neoplasms. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Sah S.P.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust | McCluggage W.G.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology | Year: 2013

The diagnosis of vulval Paget disease is generally relatively straightforward but may be difficult, especially when the Paget cells are few in number. We report 2 cases of the opposite scenario where the Paget cells were present in such large numbers and formed confluent sheets such that they effaced the residual keratinocytes. There were associated epidermal hyperplastic changes in the form of acanthosis, papillomatosis, and hyperkeratosis, and the overall morphology resulted in close mimicry of classic (undifferentiated/human papillomavirus-related) vulval intraepithelial neoplasia. There was focal intraepidermal clefting in both cases, resulting in an acantholytic appearance. In both cases, the Paget cells were strongly positive with p16 that further heightened the mimicry of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia. The Paget cells were diffusely positive with cytokeratin 7, CAM5.2, carcinoembryonic antigen, and epithelial membrane antigen and with mucin stains, and molecular tests for human papillomavirus were negative. The p16 immunoreactivity, which has not previously been reported in vulval Paget disease, prompted us to stain a small number of additional cases of more typical vulval Paget disease with this marker. Four of 5 additional cases were positive with varying degrees and patterns of immunoreactivity. Florid vulval Paget disease may morphologically mimic vulval intraepithelial neoplasia, and this mimicry may be exacerbated by p16 immunoreactivity. © 2013 International Society of Gynecological Pathologists.


Meenakshi M.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust | Mccluggage W.G.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology | Year: 2010

The occurrence of vascular involvement in adenomyosis has been noted earlier, but there has been little detailed study of this phenomenon. In this study, we examined a large series of uteri with adenomyosis (n=434), specifically looking for the presence of adenomyotic foci within vascular channels. Vascular involvement was identified in 54 cases (12.4%). In 19 of 54 cases (35%) a single vessel was involved, in 16 cases (30%) 2 to 3 vessels, and in 19 cases (35%) multiple vessels. In 34 cases (63%), the intravascular component comprised endometrial stroma only and in 20 cases (37%) there was a mixture of glands and stroma, although even in these cases some of the individual foci exhibiting vascular involvement consisted of stroma only. In most cases, the intravascular component protruded into the vessel lumen beneath an intact endothelial lining. Immunohistochemistry performed in a small number of cases confirmed the intravascular location and showed the intravascular tissue to be lined on the luminal surface with endothelial cells. Pathologists should be aware of the phenomenon of vascular involvement in adenomyosis, which is relatively common and, when widespread, may result in the consideration of a neoplastic process. The pattern of vascular involvement raises the possibility that adenomyosis develops from cells intimately associated with myometrial blood vessels, perhaps multipotential perivascular cells. © 2010 International Society of Gynecological Pathologists.


Staats P.N.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | McCluggage W.G.,Harvard University | Clement P.B.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust | Young R.H.,University of British Columbia
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014

Primary intestinal-type glandular lesions of the vagina are rare. We report a series of 14 lesions, including 1 intestinal-type polyp without neoplastic features, 3 adenomas (2 with high-grade dysplasia), and 10 adenocarcinomas. Patients ranged in age from 20 to 86 years (mean 60 y) and presented with vaginal bleeding or a mass. No history of diethylstilbestrol exposure, adenosis, or endometriosis was elicited in any patient. The lesions were mostly polypoid, small (0.8 to 2.0 cm), and located in the posterior (6 cases) and lower (7 cases) vagina. One carcinoma metastasized to a para-aortic lymph node; the others were confined to the vagina. The neoplasms exhibited histologic features identical to those seen in primary large intestinal tumors, including variable numbers of goblet cells and in 1 case neuroendocrine cells. Five of the adenocarcinomas contained areas consistent with a precursor adenoma. In 3 cases, a benign urothelium-lined duct was adjacent to the lesion, and in 2 patients benign intestinal-type epithelium was present; no other potential benign precursor lesions were seen. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 6 cases; the tumors were positive for CDX-2 (6/6), CK20 (5/6), CEA (5/5), CK7 (4/6), and CA-125 (2/4) and were negative for ER (0/6) and p16 (0/2). Clinical outcome data were available in 3 patients with adenocarcinomas; 1 died of disease in <1 year, and 2 were alive with no evidence of disease at 2 and 7 years. The pertinent literature is reviewed, and the potential origin and differential diagnosis of these lesions are discussed. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.


McCluggage W.G.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust
Histopathology | Year: 2013

There is evidence that the prevalence of premalignant and malignant endocervical glandular lesions is increasing in real as well as in apparent terms. In this review, new developments and selected controversial aspects of endocervical glandular lesions are covered, concentrating mainly on premalignant and malignant lesions. The terminology of premalignant endocervical glandular lesions is discussed with a comparison of the World Health Organization classification and the cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) system, which is in widespread use in the United Kingdom. Primary cervical adenocarcinomas comprise a heterogeneous group of different morphological types, and while it is known that the majority of these are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), it has become clear in recent years that most of the more uncommon morphological types are unassociated with HPV, although they may sometimes be p16-positive. A spectrum of benign, premalignant and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation is now recognized; these include type A tunnel clusters, typical and atypical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, adenoma malignum and gastric-type adenocarcinoma. The latter is a recently described variant of primary cervical adenocarcinoma which has a different morphological appearance to the usual endocervical type and which is probably associated with different patterns of spread and a worse prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that 'early invasive' cervical adenocarcinomas have an excellent prognosis and are suitable for conservative management. Immunohistochemical markers of value in the distinction between a primary cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma are discussed. While it is well known that a panel of markers comprising oestrogen receptor (ER), vimentin, p16 and monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is useful, several major pitfalls are pointed out and this panel of markers is predominantly of value in 'low-grade' adenocarcinomas. A related group of lesions, including cervical ectopic prostatic tissue and vaginal tubulosquamous polyp, are probably derived from para-urethral Skene's glands and may be positive with prostatic markers. Recent developments in cervical neuroendocrine neoplasms are discussed, as these are associated not uncommonly with a premalignant or malignant endocervical glandular lesion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.


McCluggage W.G.,Belfast Health and Social Care Trust | McCluggage W.G.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust
Pathology | Year: 2011

Ovarian carcinomas comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, the four most common subtypes being serous, endometrioid, clear cell and mucinous. In recent years, our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis and initiating molecular events in the different tumour subtypes has greatly increased, and although ovarian carcinoma is often considered clinically as one disease, there is now a much greater realisation that the various subtypes have a different natural behaviour and prognosis. At present, adjuvant therapy is mainly dependent upon tumour stage and grade rather than type; however, this is likely to change in the future with the development of new chemotherapeutic agents and targeted therapies and clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of different agents in clear cell, mucinous and low grade serous carcinomas, neoplasms which are considered relatively resistant to traditional chemotherapeutic regimes. In this review, the major subtypes of ovarian carcinoma are discussed. It is now firmly established that there are two distinct types of ovarian serous carcinoma, low grade and high grade, the former being much less common and arising in many cases from a serous borderline tumour. Low grade and high grade serous carcinoma represent two distinct tumour types with a different underlying pathogenesis rather than low grade and high grade variants of the same neoplasm. Both are usually advanced stage (stage III or IV) at diagnosis. B-raf and k-ras mutations are important molecular events in low grade serous carcinomas while high grade serous carcinomas are almost always associated with TP53 mutation. There is now emerging and compelling evidence that many high grade serous carcinomas (by far the most common subtype of ovarian carcinoma) actually arise from the epithelium of the distal fallopian tube. Future studies regarding the initiating molecular events in the development of this aggressive neoplasm should concentrate on this site. Primary ovarian mucinous carcinomas are uncommon, almost always unilateral and stage I, and largely of so-called intestinal or enteric type. Most arise in a stepwise manner from a pre-existing mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous borderline tumour. Endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas typically present as low stage neoplasms and in many, or most, cases arise from endometriosis; the former are usually well differentiated and there is now evidence that the majority of neoplasms reported in the past as high grade endometrioid carcinoma are of serous type. WT1 is useful in this regard since it is a relatively specific marker of a serous phenotype. It is recommended that different subtypes of ovarian carcinoma are graded using different systems rather than employing a universal grading system. © 2011 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.


McCluggage W.G.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust
Advances in Anatomic Pathology | Year: 2016

Most adenocarcinomas in the lower female genital tract (cervix, vagina, vulva) arise in the cervix and are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, there is an emerging spectrum of non-HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas, the most common of which is so-called gastric type. In this review, the concept of gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas and their possible precursor lesions is covered, the precursor lesions still being poorly understood. Other non-HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas are also discussed, including new information regarding molecular events in mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A variety of primary vaginal adenocarcinomas, including clear cell, endometrioid, intestinal and gastric types are also discussed. The spectrum of benign and malignant glandular lesions involving the lower female genital tract and probably derived from misplaced Skene's (periurethral) glands is also covered. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


McCluggage W.G.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust
Advances in Anatomic Pathology | Year: 2010

Mullerian adenosarcoma is an uncommon, but not rare, mixed tumor containing a neoplastic but benign or mildly atypical epithelial element and a sarcomatous, usually low-grade, stromal component. The most common site is the uterine corpus but adenosarcoma also occurs in the cervix and ovary and more rarely in the vagina, fallopian tube, arising from peritoneal surfaces, or outside the female genital tract, for example in the intestine. Most uterine cases have a polypoid gross appearance, sometimes resulting in the formation of multiple polyps. Characteristic histologic features include a low power "phyllodes-like" architecture with leaf-like projections lined by a variety of benign Mullerian type epithelia, sometimes with squamous metaplasia. Intraglandular stromal protrusions are a characteristic feature. The stroma may be uniformly cellular but there is typically increased cellularity around the epithelial elements, resulting in the formation of a cambium layer. Using the World Health Organization definition, stromal mitotic activity of 2 or more per 10 high-power fields is required for a diagnosis of adenosarcoma but in practice the diagnosis is made with stromal mitotic activity less than this if the characteristic architecture and cambium layer is present. The stromal component is usually morphologically "low-grade" and of endometrial stromal or fibroblastic type (hormone receptor and CD10 positive). Sometimes it is high grade, resembling undifferentiated sarcoma. Additional features sometimes present include heterologous stromal elements or sex cord-like differentiation. Uterine adenosarcomas are, in general, low-grade neoplasms capable of local recurrence after polypectomy or hysterectomy and much less commonly distant metastasis. The 2 most important adverse prognostic factors, which sometimes coexist, are deep myometrial invasion and sarcomatous overgrowth; the latter is usually associated with morphologically "high-grade" stromal elements with loss of expression of hormone receptors and CD10. Adenosarcoma may be confused with a variety of lesions and one of the main differential diagnoses is adenofibroma in which the stromal component is, by definition, morphologically benign. However, occasional adenofibromas recur or even metastasize. As such, it has been suggested that all adenofibromas should be classified as adenosarcomas, albeit with low-malignant potential. Ovarian adenosarcomas are much more likely to exhibit malignant behavior than their uterine counterparts, probably due to the lack of an anatomic barrier to peritoneal dissemination.Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Glenn McCluggage W.,Royal Group of Hospitals Trust
Pathology | Year: 2013

Premalignant lesions of the lower female genital tract encompassing the cervix, vagina and vulva are variably common and many, but by no means all, are related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). In this review, pathological aspects of the various premalignant lesions are discussed, mainly concentrating on new developments. The value of ancillary studies, mainly immunohistochemical, is discussed at the appropriate points. In the cervix, the terminology and morphological features of premalignant glandular lesions is covered, as is the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and early invasive adenocarcinoma, which may be very problematic. A spectrum of benign, premalignant and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation is emerging with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH), including so-called atypical LEGH, representing a possible precursor of non HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas exhibiting gastric differentiation; these include the cytologically bland adenoma malignum and the morphologically malignant gastric type adenocarcinoma. Stratified mucin producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) is a premalignant cervical lesion with morphological overlap between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and AIS and which is variably regarded as a form of reserve cell dysplasia or stratified AIS. It is now firmly established that there are two distinct types of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with a different pathogenesis, molecular events, morphological features and risk of progression to squamous carcinoma. These comprise a more common HPV-related usual type VIN (also referred to as classic, undifferentiated, basaloid, warty, Bowenoid type) and a more uncommon differentiated (simplex) type which is non- HPV related and which is sometimes associated with lichen sclerosus. The former has a relatively low risk of progression to HPV-related vulval squamous carcinoma and the latter a high risk of progression to non-HPV related vulval squamous carcinoma. Various aspects of vulval Paget's disease are also discussed. © 2013 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.

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