Watkin L.,St Pancras Hospital |
Blanchard M.R.,St Pancras Hospital |
Blanchard M.R.,University College London |
Tookman A.,Royal Free Hospital Hampstead |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2012
Background Reported adverse events (RAEs) are relatively common in the acute hospital and are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Dementia is increasing in hospital in-patients, however there have been few studies exploring risk factors for RAEs, in particular cognitive impairment and dementia. Our objective was to identify the prevalence of RAEs in older acute medical inpatients and associated demographic, clinical or cognitive risk factors. Method A longitudinal cohort study set on acute medical wards in a large general hospital. We recruited 710 people aged over 70 years undergoing emergency medical admission. Dementia was diagnosed using operationalised DSM-IV criteria. Patients were assessed using standardised tools including the Confusion Assessment Method, mini-mental state examination, the Functional Assessment Staging scale, the APACHE scale and Charlson co-morbidity index. Data on adverse events was supplied independently by the hospital clinical risk department. Results 8.6% (95% CI 6.4-10.6) of patients experienced an RAE; 5.9% (95% CI 4.2-7.6) were patient-related and 2.7% (95% CI 1.5-3.8) system-related (incidence rate for all RAEs was 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.8)) per person year of hospital admission. Median length of admission was 8 days (inter-quartile range 4-17 days). Patient-related RAEs were associated with male gender, delirium, mild/moderate cognitive impairment and a FAST score of 2-6. Overall, 11.1% died during the admission-this was not associated with experiencing an RAE. Staff comments on incident forms indicated an apparent lack of understanding of the impact of cognitive impairment. Conclusions RAEs were common and associated with risk factors identifiable at admission. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pratt M.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
John K.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Maclean A.B.,Royal Free Hospital Hampstead |
Afework S.,Royal Free Hospital Hampstead |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2011
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products), considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS). These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies. © 2011 by the authors.
Cacoub P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
Bourlire M.,Service dHepato Gastroenterologie |
Lubbe J.,University of Geneva |
Dupin N.,University of Paris Descartes |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2012
Dermatological adverse events (AEs) are an existing concern during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and peginterferon/ribavirin treatment. HCV infection leads to dermatological and muco-cutaneous manifestations including small-vessel vasculitis as part of the mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome. Peginterferon/ribavirin treatment is associated with well-characterized dermatological AEs tending towards a uniform entity of dermatitis. New direct-acting antivirals have led to significant improvements in sustained virologic response rates, but several have led to an increase in dermatological AEs versus peginterferon/ribavirin alone. In telaprevir trials, approximately half of treated patients had rash. More than 90% of these events were Grade 1 or 2 (mild/moderate) and in the majority (92%) of cases, progression to a more severe grade did not occur. In a small number of cases (6%), rash led to telaprevir discontinuation, whereupon symptoms commonly resolved. Dermatological AEs with telaprevir-based triple therapy were generally similar to those observed with peginterferon/ribavirin (xerosis, pruritus, and eczema). A few cases were classified as severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR), also referred to as serious skin reactions, a group of rare conditions that are potentially life-threatening. It is therefore important to distinguish between telaprevir-related dermatitis and SCAR. The telaprevir prescribing information does not require telaprevir discontinuation for Grade 1 or 2 (mild/moderate) rash, which can be treated using emollients/moisturizers and topical corticosteroids. For Grade 3 rash, the prescribing information mandates immediate telaprevir discontinuation, with ribavirin interruption (with or without peginterferon) within 7 days of stopping telaprevir if there is no improvement, or sooner if it worsens. In case of suspicion or confirmed diagnosis of SCAR, all study medication must be discontinued. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the European Association for the Study of the Liver.
Mellars G.,Royal Free Hospital Hampstead |
Gomez K.,Royal Free Hospital Hampstead
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011
Following the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, it became clear that scientists needed to be able to distinguish different DNA sequences. In 1975, Edward Southern published details of a new method for detecting DNA fragments based upon their specific sequence. An indication of the importance of his work is that the technique was eponymously named after him and that subsequent methods based loosely on similar principles were named using a play on his surname (western and northern blot). The simplicity and effectiveness of the technique led to its universal acceptance as a standard method for identification of DNA sequences. In the modern laboratory where turn-around times assume ever greater importance, the process can seem relatively time-consuming. In some cases, this has led to its replacement by more rapid techniques such as long-range PCR. Nevertheless, more than 30 years after its invention, the Southern blot remains a cornerstone of molecular biology. © 2011 Humana Press.