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Vanderpump M.P.J.,Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2010

A mildly increased serum thyrotrophin (TSH) is usually because of mild thyroid failure, and the most common aetiology in iodine-replete communities is chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. It is more common in women, and the prevalence increases with age in both men and women and is associated with the presence of antithyroid antibodies. The majority will have serum TSH levels between 5-10 mIU/l, normal free thyroxine (T4) levels and relatively few symptoms. In 2004, US evidence-based consensus guidelines concluded that there were no adverse outcomes of a mildly increased serum TSH other than a risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism and few data to justify levothyroxine therapy. There is still debate as to what constitutes an increased serum TSH, particularly in older subjects. Although some subjects will progress to overt hypothyroidism, recent data suggest a significant proportion revert to a serum TSH within the reference range without treatment. Two recent meta-analyses have suggested that the possible cardiovascular risks may be more significant in younger adults. Other data suggest that mild thyroid failure may be the only reversible cause of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. No appropriately powered prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded interventional trial of levothyroxine therapy for a mildly increased serum TSH exists. However, treatment in subjects who are symptomatic, pregnant or preconception, aged less than 65 years and older subjects with evidence of heart failure appear justified. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Vanderpump M.P.J.,Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust
British Medical Bulletin | Year: 2011

Introduction: Thyroid disorders are prevalent and their manifestations are determined by the dietary iodine availability. Sources of data: Data from screening large population samples from USA and Europe. Areas of agreement: The most common cause of thyroid disorders worldwide is iodine deficiency, leading to goitre formation and hypothyroidism. In iodine-replete areas, most persons with thyroid disorders have autoimmune disease. Areas of controversy: Definition of thyroid disorders, selection criteria used, influence of age and sex, environmental factors and the different techniques used for assessment of thyroid function. Growing points: Increasing incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Environmental iodine influences the epidemiology of non-malignant thyroid disease. Areas timely for developing research: Iodine supplementation of populations with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. An evidence-based strategy for the risk stratification, treatment and follow-up of benign nodular thyroid disease. Is there any benefit in screening adults for thyroid dysfunction? © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Vanderpump M.P.J.,Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust | Lazarus J.H.,University of Cardiff | Smyth P.P.,University College Dublin | Smyth P.P.,National University of Ireland | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Background: Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. It is defined by WHO as mild if the population median urinary iodine excretion is 50-99 μg/L, moderate if 20-49 μg/L, and severe if less than 20 μg/L. No contemporary data are available for the UK, which has no programme of food or salt iodination. We aimed to assess the current iodine status of the UK population. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, we systematically assessed iodine status in schoolgirls aged 14-15 years attending secondary school in nine UK centres. Urinary iodine concentrations and tap water iodine concentrations were measured in June-July, 2009, and November-December, 2009. Ethnic origin, postcode, and a validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine were recorded. Findings: 810 participants provided 737 urine samples. Data for dietary habits and iodine status were available for 664 participants. Median urinary iodine excretion was 80·1 μg/L (IQR 56·9-109·0). Urinary iodine measurements indicative of mild iodine deficiency were present in 51% (n=379) of participants, moderate deficiency in 16% (n=120), and severe deficiency in 1% (n=8). Prevalence of iodine deficiency was highest in Belfast (85%, n=135). Tap water iodine concentrations were low or undetectable and were not positively associated with urinary iodine concentrations. Multivariable general linear model analysis confirmed independent associations between low urinary iodine excretion and sampling in summer (p<0·0001), UK geographical location (p<0·0001), low intake of milk (p=0·03), and high intake of eggs (p=0·02). Interpretation: Our findings suggest that the UK is iodine deficient. Since developing fetuses are the most susceptible to adverse effects of iodine deficiency and even mild perturbations of maternal and fetal thyroid function have an effect on neurodevelopment, these findings are of potential major public health importance. This study has drawn attention to an urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of UK iodine status and implementation of evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. Funding: Clinical Endocrinology Trust. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Vanderpump M.,Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust
Nature Reviews Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Up to one-third of patients treated with levothyroxine for primary hypothyroidism have biochemical evidence of inadequate thyroid hormone replacement. Could treatment effects of levothyoxine be optimized by bedtime administration on an empty stomach? A new study reveals the answer and also sheds light on other possible benefits of this alternative timing. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Schreiber B.E.,Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust | Agrup C.,University College London | Haskard D.O.,Imperial College London | Luxon L.M.,The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is usually unilateral and can be associated with tinnitus and vertigo. In most cases the cause is not identified, although various infective, vascular, and immune causes have been proposed. A careful examination is needed to exclude life threatening or treatable causes such as vascular events and malignant diseases, and patients should be referred urgently for further assessment. About half of patients completely recover, usually in about 2 weeks. Many treatments are used, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and vasoactive and oxygen-based treatments. Although no treatment is proven, we recommend a short course of oral high-dose corticosteroids. There is much to learn about pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and more clinical trials are needed to establish evidence-based management. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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