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Royal Dutch Shell plc , commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. Created by the merger of Royal Dutch Petroleum and UK-based Shell Transport & Trading, and as of 2014 it is the fourth largest company in the world, in terms of revenue, and one of the six oil and gas "supermajors".Shell is also one of the world's most valuable companies. As of January 2013 the largest shareholder is Capital Research Global Investors with 9.85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6.89%. Shell topped the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies. Royal Dutch Shell revenue was equal to 84% of the Netherlands's $555.8 billion GDP at the time.Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining, distribution and marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading. It has minor renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels and wind. It has operations in over 90 countries, produces around 3.1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses.Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. As of 6 July 2012, it was the largest company on the FTSE, with a market capitalisation of £140.9 billion. It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange. Wikipedia.

Zhang J.,Royal Dutch Shell
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2013

Borehole instabilities pose significant challenges to drilling and completion operations, particularly in regions with weak bedding planes and pre-existing fractures where formations have strong anisotropies. The bedding planes, rock anisotropy, and their impacts on horizontal stresses are considered in the proposed model to improve borehole stability modeling. This improved model enables to calculate borehole failures and minimum mud weight along borehole trajectories with various drilling orientations versus bedding directions. Laboratory test data of rock compressive strengths are analyzed, and a new correlation is developed to allow for predicting uniaxial compressive strengths in weak rocks from sonic velocities. Time-dependent rock compressive strength is also examined to analyze the wellbore failure evolution with time. The slip failure gradient in the weak planes is derived, which can be used to model wellbore sliding/shear failure in the planes of weakness. The mud weight applied to prevent borehole shear failures in both intact rocks and ones with weak bedding planes can be obtained from the proposed model. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Streich R.,Royal Dutch Shell
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2016

Electromagnetic methods that utilize controlled sources have been applied for natural resource exploration for more than a century. Nevertheless, concomitant with the recent adoption of marine controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) by the hydrocarbon industry, the overall usefulness of CSEM methods on land has been questioned within the industry. Truly, there are few published examples of land CSEM surveys carried out completely analogously to the current marine CSEM standard approach of towing a bipole source across an array of stationary receivers, continuously transmitting a low-frequency signal and interpreting the data in the frequency domain. Rather, different sensitivity properties of different exploration targets in diverse geological settings, gradual advances in theoretical understanding, acquisition and computer technology, and different schools in different parts of the world have resulted in a sometimes confusing multitude of land-based controlled-source EM surveying approaches. Here, I aim to review previous and present-day approaches, and provide reasoning for their diversity. I focus on surface-based techniques while excluding airborne EM and well logging and on applications for hydrocarbon exploration. Attempts at the very demanding task of using onshore controlled-source EM for reservoir monitoring are shown, and the possible future potential of EM monitoring is discussed. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Many waterflood projects now experience significant amounts of water cut, with more water than hydrocarbon flowing between the injectors and producers. In addition to the impact on water viscosity and density that results from using different injection-water sources during a field's life, water chemistry itself may impact oil recovery, as demonstrated by recent research on low-salinity water-injection schemes. It is also known that water chemistry has a profound impact on various chemical enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) processes. Moreover, the effectiveness and viability of such EOR schemes is strongly dependent on reservoir-brine and injectionwater compositions. In particular, the presence of divalent cations such as Ca +2 and Mg +2 has a significantly adverse effect for chemical EORs. Using new developments in reservoir simulation, this paper outlines a method to couple geochemical reactions in a reservoir simulator in black-oil and compositional modes suitable for largescale reservoir models for waterflood and EOR studies. The new multicomponent reactive-transport modeling capability considers chemical reactions triggered by injection water and/or injected reactive gases such as CO 2 and H 2S, including mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange, and surface complexation. For waterflood-performance assessment, the new modeling capability makes possible a more-optimum evaluation of petrophysical logs for well intervals where injection-water invasion is suspected. By modeling transport of individual species in the aqueous phase from injectors to producers, reservoir characterization can also be improved through the use of these natural tracers, provided that the compositions of the actual produced water are used in the history matching. The simulated water compositions in producers can also be used by production chemists to assess scaling and corrosion risks. For CO 2 EOR studies, we illustrate chemical changes inside a reservoir and in the produced water before and after CO 2 breakthrough, and discuss geochemical monitoring as a potential surveillance tool. Alkaline-flood-induced water chemical changes and calcite precipitation are also presented to illustrate applicability for chemical EOR with the new simulation capability. copyright © 2012 Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source

The West Baram Line separates NW Borneo's two petroleum systems. Oligocene sandstone and Lower Miocene carbonate reservoirs of the gas-prone Luconia system lie SW of that line. Northeast of the West Baram Line, the oil-rich Baram-Balabac Basin produces from Middle Miocene to Early Pliocene sandstones deposited in a foreland basin on the western side of the mountainous interior of Borneo. On the present-day shelf exploration efforts spanning nearly four decades have focused on the Champion and Baram deltas and associated extensional growth fault structures. Many of these structures have experienced youthful inversion owing to ongoing tectonic shortening. Recent discoveries prove this petroleum system extends into deep water beyond the modern shelf edge where an active fold-thrust belt has formed above autochthonous rifted continental crust of the Dangerous Grounds province in the South China Sea. New regional mapping (c. 100 000 km2) integrating seismic, borehole and gravity data shows that the Baram-Balabac Basin is segmented into four structural domains whose boundary zones trend NW-SE similar to the strike of the West Baram Line. Domain boundaries appear to control the position of the basin's palaeoshelf edges, turbidite depositional systems, major unconformities and the position of the basin's largest fields. These observations suggest that the domain boundaries are the expression of deep structures, probably within the underlying rifted continental crust. Two of the domain boundaries can be projected onshore to align with fault systems separating contrasting geological elements indicating they represent features of tectonic interest. The onshore geology of NW Borneo represents the early history of the Baram-Balabac Basin. The onshore geology is reviewed and new outcrop, biostratigraphic and palaeomagnetic data from Sabah are discussed in light of current models for the region's tectonic evolution. A hybrid model is proposed in which the Baram-Balabac Basin post-dates the Sarawak Orogeny. The Sarawak Orogeny, which appears to be more regionally extensive than previously believed, is attributed to Eocene to Early Oligocene collision of the Dangerous Grounds and Reed Bank with Sabah and Palawan. In the proposed model Oligo-Miocene subduction of oceanic crust under NW Borneo is minimal. The Sabah Orogeny and younger inversion events are related to under-thrusting of the Dangerous Grounds driven by both the opening of the South China Sea and by NW-directed subduction beneath SE Sabah in the Semporna-Dent Peninsula. In this context the structural complexity of the Baram-Balabac foreland basin reflects the adjustment of deep crustal blocks to far-field tectonic stress. © 2010 EAGE/Geological Society of London. Source

Sequeiros O.E.,Royal Dutch Shell
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2012

There is a growing need across different disciplines to develop better predictive tools for flow conditions of density and turbidity currents. Apart from resorting to complex numerical modeling or expensive field measurements, little is known about how to estimate gravity flow parameters from scarce available data and how they relate to each other. This study presents a new method to estimate normal flow conditions of gravity flows from channel morphology based on an extensive data set of laboratory and field measurements. The compilation consists of 78 published works containing 1092 combined measurements of velocity and concentration of gravity flows dating as far back as the early 1950s. Because the available data do not span all ranges of the critical parameters, such as bottom slope, a validated Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) - numerical model is used to cover the gaps. It is shown that gravity flows fall within a range of Froude numbers spanning 1 order of magnitude centered on unity, as opposed to rivers and open-channel flows which extend to a much wider range. It is also observed that the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow regime occurs around a slope of 1%, with a spread caused by parameters other than the bed slope, like friction and suspended sediment settling velocity. The method is based on a set of equations relating Froude number to bed slope, combined friction, suspended material, and other flow parameters. The applications range from quick estimations of gravity flow conditions to improved numerical modeling and back calculation of missing parameters. A real case scenario of turbidity current estimation from a submarine canyon off the Nigerian coast is provided as an example. © 2012 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

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