Halpin D.M.G.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital
Primary Care Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010
Translating the growing evidence base on COPD management into practice can be challenging and understanding the strengths and weakness of published studies is crucial. Studies should conform to the standards of CONSORT statement; they should be sufficiently powered, participants should be randomised, there should be assignment concealment, and the outcome measures and analyses should be decided in advance. The interpretation of the results may be affected by age and severity inclusion criteria for the study and the exclusion of patients with co-morbid illnesses. Whether previous medication is continued or stopped can affect the interpretation of the results. Secondary analyses in sub-groups should be viewed with caution unless pre-specified and accommodated in the trial design and power calculations. Real world observational studies may be confounded by non-randomisation of participants but can sometimes yield valuable insights. The way in which the results are presented can influence their interpretation and their magnitude with respect to minimal important differences as well as statistical significance is important. Research studies help formulate management algorithms but often the questions they address are too specific to allow evidence-based sequencing of therapies. © 2010 Primary Care Respiratory Society UK.
Matthews J.J.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital |
Schranz P.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2010
Patellar instability is a common clinical problem affecting a young, active population. A large number of procedures have been described to treat patellar instability. We present the clinical results in a case series of 25 medial patellofemoral ligament reconstructions in 21 patients with up to 30 months follow-up (mean: 7.3). Reconstruction was performed using either the gracilis or semitendinosus tendon autograft. The Tegner activity score improved overall from 3 to 4.4 at follow-up and the mean follow-up Kujala score was 87 (range: 55-100). No patella redislocations were observed. Five patients (20%) required a manipulation under anaesthetic but subsequently regained a satisfactory range of motion. Medial patellofemoral reconstruction with both gracilis and semitendinosus tendon graft using a longitudinal tunnel technique provided good post-operative stability restoring the primary soft tissue restraint to pathological lateral patellar displacement with no complications of post-operative patellar fracture. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Turnpenny P.D.,Gladstone |
Ellard S.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012
Alagille syndrome (ALGS), also known as arteriohepatic dysplasia, is a multisystem disorder due to defects in components of the Notch signalling pathway, most commonly due to mutation in JAG1 (ALGS type 1), but in a small proportion of cases mutation in NOTCH2 (ALGS type 2). The main clinical and pathological features are chronic cholestasis due to paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, minor vertebral segmentation anomalies, characteristic facies, posterior embryotoxon/anterior segment abnormalities, pigmentary retinopathy, and dysplastic kidneys. It follows autosomal dominant inheritance, but reduced penetrance and variable expression are common in this disorder, and somatic/germline mosaicism may also be relatively frequent. This review discusses the clinical features of ALGS, including long-term complications, the clinical and molecular diagnosis, and management. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Rashid M.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Year: 2012
Intranasal medication for eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is an established practice in otolaryngology through the effects of steroids, decongestants, antihistamines or a combination of the above in reducing tubal oedema. The author has previously argued that a doubleblind, randomised control trial would be helpful in determining effectiveness of treatment, if a standardised head position, chiefly Mygind or Ragan, was adopted to maximize intranasal drop delivery into the eustachian tube orifice. One recent paper suggests that intranasal treatment is not very effective, but ultimately does not state whether a standardised head position was adopted. Although a large body of evidence supports the hypothesis that the nasal passages are the route to middle ear disease, there is as yet no paper that has been published that has specifically addressed this issue, therefore the author must conclude that evidence to support intranasal treatment for ETD is still lacking and further research is desirable. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012.
Devalia V.,Princess of Wales Hospital |
Hamilton M.S.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital |
Molloy A.M.,Trinity College Dublin
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2014
Summary of key recommendations: The clinical picture is the most important factor in assessing the significance of test results assessing cobalamin status because there is no 'gold standard' test to define deficiency. Serum cobalamin currently remains the first-line test, with additional second-line plasma methylmalonic acid to help clarify uncertainties of underlying biochemical/functional deficiencies. Serum holotranscobalamin has the potential as a first-line test, but an indeterminate 'grey area' may still exist. Plasma homocysteine may be helpful as a second-line test, but is less specific than methylmalonic acid. The availability of these second-line tests is currently limited. Definitive cut-off points to define clinical and subclinical deficiency states are not possible, given the variety of methodologies used and technical issues, and local reference ranges should be established. In the presence of discordance between the test result and strong clinical features of deficiency, treatment should not be delayed to avoid neurological impairment. Treatment of cobalamin deficiency is recommended in line with the British National Formulary. Oral therapy may be suitable and acceptable provided appropriate doses are taken and compliance is not an issue. Serum folate offers equivalent diagnostic capability to red cell folate and is the first-line test of choice to assess folate status. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Scatchard K.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women up to 65 years of age and is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological cancers worldwide. A woman's risk of developing cervical cancer by 65 years of age ranges from 0.69% in developed countries to 1.38% in developing countries. Although screening by Pap smear should mean early detection at a curable stage for most women, many still present with advanced or metastatic disease with a worse prognosis. The addition of platinum-based chemotherapy to radiotherapy has improved outcome compared to radiotherapy alone; however, 30% to 50% fail to respond to treatment or develop recurrent disease. There are no standard treatment options for these patients, although platinum-based chemotherapy is frequently used and trials are on-going. To compare different types and combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic/recurrent cervical cancer. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE (1950 to January 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to January 2012). The reference lists from these and those of review articles were also checked. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving chemotherapy for metastatic/recurrent cervical cancer. Trials involving radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, intra-arterial chemotherapy, biological agents or immunomodulators were excluded. Three review authors independently reviewed trials for inclusion and data extraction and assessed risk of bias. There were no data comparing best supportive care with chemotherapy. Cisplatin-based regimens are the most widely used and therefore we have concentrated on these trials. In terms of response rates some non-platinum regimens are equivalent but toxicity is higher. The most common cisplatin regimen was 50 mg/m(2) day 1 q21days. Higher doses had similar survivals. There was no direct comparison between single-agent cisplatin and carboplatin. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were not adequately reported and quality of life (QoL) outcomes were incompletely documented. Combination regimens were more toxic than single agents, but in the limited reported data this did not appear to adversely affect QoL.No significant difference in response rate by site of recurrence was found, although there was a trend towards improved response when the main site of disease was beyond the previously irradiated pelvis. Combination cisplatin-based chemotherapy could be a viable option for patients of good performance status with recurrent/metastatic cervical cancer, but further trials that report adequate survival and QoL data are sought. Response rates and improvements in survival are low. Cisplatin-based combinations have significant toxicity. Outcomes are poor and novel cytotoxic/biological agents and optimal scheduling need further investigation. Future trials need to stratify for and perform planned subgroup analysis with respect to previous treatment and site of recurrence.
Smart N.J.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital |
Bloor S.,Eveus Consulting Ltd
Surgical Innovation | Year: 2012
In the past 10 years, hernia repair has evolved from primarily using suture closure to using mesh repair. Synthetic mesh implants were the initial gold standard, but the rate of complications such as infection, adhesions, and erosion was higher with synthetics than has been observed with newer biologic implants. As efforts to develop the ideal implant continue, the advantages of biologics for hernia and other soft-tissue repair become increasingly apparent. Animal-sourced biologics have the potential advantage over human dermis of being more amenable to standardization, and porcine dermal collagen architecture closely resembles that of human dermis. Cross-linking the collagen adds strength and durability to the implant that facilitates healing of surgical wounds, just as endogenous collagen, which is cross-linked, has innate durability that enhances natural wound healing. This review defines and assesses durability of the acellular collagen (biologic) implant options available for hernia repair. The factors that affect wound healing-and hernia repair-are summarized. Additionally, the particular features that enhance durability are described, and durability-related clinical outcomes discussed in the literature are cited to aid clinicians in making informed surgical choices. © The Author(s) 2012.
Humphry S.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume | Year: 2012
Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are sensitive modalities for the assessment of the spine, but certain injuries remain poorly assessed with supine radiographs. We describe four cases in which cervical spine injuries were proven as unstable with erect radiographs after being previously evaluated with supine radiographs and CT scans. A retrospective review of medical records and images was used to identify four patients who presented to a teaching hospital from April to December 2010 with unstable cervical spine injuries that were only demonstrated on erect radiographs. All four patients sustained either C4-C5 or C5-C6 injuries. Prior to diagnosis, each had been evaluated with supine radiographs that did not demonstrate instability. Computed tomography identified the osseous injuries that were present but did not provide suitable assessment of stability. Three patients successfully underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The fourth was managed with a Halo jacket because of major comorbidities. Despite major advances in imaging, these cases highlight the importance of physiological loading and radiographs. The controlled use of erect radiographs to test for clinical instability in patients with cervical spine injuries should be considered except in cases in which instability is already evident on other imaging modalities and/or surgical treatment is already indicated.
Dattani R.,University of Cambridge |
Smith C.D.,Royal Devon And Exeter Hospital |
Patel V.R.,South West London Elective Orthopaedic Center
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B | Year: 2013
We investigated the incidence of and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following surgery of the shoulder and elbow and assessed the role of thromboprophylaxis in upper limb surgery. All papers describing VTE after shoulder and elbow surgery published in the English language literature before 31 March 2012 were reviewed. A total of 14 papers were available for analysis, most of which were retrospective studies and case series. The incidence of VTE was 0.038% from 92 440 shoulder arthroscopic procedures, 0.52% from 42 261 shoulder replacements, and 0.64% from 4833 procedures for fractures of the proximal humerus (open reduction and internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty). The incidence following replacement of the elbow was 0.26% from 2701 procedures. Diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and ischaemic heart disease were identified as the major risk factors. The evidence that exists on thromboprophylaxis is based on level III and IV studies, and we therefore cannot make any recommendations on prophylaxis based on the current evidence. It seems reasonable to adopt a multimodal approach that involves all patients receiving mechanical prophylaxis, with chemical prophylaxis reserved for those who are at high risk for VTE. © 2013 British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Smith C.D.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital |
Guyver P.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital |
Bunker T.D.,Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B | Year: 2012
The outcome of an anatomical shoulder replacement depends on an intact rotator cuff. In 1981 Grammont designed a novel large-head reverse shoulder replacement for patients with cuff deficiency. Such has been the success of this replacement that it has led to a rapid expansion of the indications. We performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the functional outcome of each indication for the reverse shoulder replacement. Secondary outcome measures of range of movement, pain scores and complication rates are also presented. © 2012 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.