Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu

Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia

Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu

Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia
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Al-Maghrabi M.A.,Dalhousie University | Al-Maghrabi M.A.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Suzuki J.,National Institute of Technology, Matsue College | Sanderson R.J.,Dalhousie University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2013

Thin films of Si1-xOx were produced using combinatorial sputtering methods. X-ray diffraction studies of these films show that they are amorphous or nanostructured. The effect of oxygen content on the electrochemical performance of these materials was studied. The reversible specific capacity (between 0.005 and 0.9 V) agrees with the assumption that Si1-xOx is made up of amorphous silicon, which can react to form Li3.75Si, and amorphous SiO2, which reacts to form Li4SiO4. The irreversible capacity increases with oxygen content when measured to a potential limit of 0.9 V vs Li/Li+ but further Li can be extracted from sites presumably near oxygen up to a potential of 2.0 V vs Li/Li+. However, such potentials for the negative electrode would not be reached in a full Li-ion cell. This work shows that the oxygen content in Si1-xOx should be optimized to produce materials with a reasonable active/inactive ratio in order to have electrodes with the desired specific capacity, an appropriate irreversible capacity and an appropriate amount of inactive phase to buffer volume expansion. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.


Bajahlan A.S.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Wie J.-M.,Saudi Arabian Parsons Ltd
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013

Yanbu Industrial City (YIC) in Saudi Arabia depends on seawater desalination for its entire fresh water supply. The fresh water is supplied by a desalination plant that consists of nine multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation units and seven reverse osmosis (RO) desalination trains. The product water from the MSF and RO desalination processes requires post-treatment to prepare it for potable use. The distillate from the MSF units is remineralized by adding hydrated lime and carbon dioxide, chlorinated by the injection of chlorine gas, and aerated with compressed air. The remineralization steps result in raising pH, alkalinity, and hardness of the water, thereby stabilizing the water. For the permeate from the RO trains, hydrated lime and sodium hypochlorite are added. This paper presents the potable water quality data for the last 6 years from 2006 to 2011 and the water characteristics in YIC, along with the post-treatment processes of the desalinated water. YIC's potable water produced by seawater desalination is of high quality and prevents bacteriological growth without any microbiological contamination. The water is healthy and suitable for human consumption and use on the basis of the water quality monitoring data with respect to its physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Saricimen H.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Quddus A.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Eid O.A.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Ahmad A.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | And 2 more authors.
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials | Year: 2011

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the long-term corrosion behavior of cast iron coupons in the Jubail Industrial City (JIC), Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: The samples were exposed under atmospheric, underground, and splash zone conditions, at Khaleej Mardumah Test Station (KMTS) in Jubail. Soil, groundwater, seawater and air particulate samples were collected at the exposure sites and were analyzed. Secondary electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to examine the surface morphology of the test coupons and identify the corrosion products developed on the surface of the metals. The corrosion rates of the coupons were determined by weight loss method. Findings: The results showed that the atmosphere, underground and splash zone conditions all were very corrosive to cast iron, due to temperature and humidity variations as well as the high chloride and sulfate concentrations in the region. The splash zone was the most corrosive regime of the three test zones. The main corrosive ions in the environments were identified as chloride and sulfate. The maximum chloride and sulfate concentrations were measured to be 8.94 and 49.65 μg/m3 in atmosphere, 8,040 and 1,410 ppm in soil, and 29,500 and 5,770 mg/l in seawater, respectively. The corrosion rates of cast irons were found to be 343-536 μm/y in splash zone, 90-214 μm/y in underground, and 22-27 μm/y in atmosphere. Compared to other parts of the world, the soil, marine and atmospheric environments at the selected test site are very corrosive. Originality/value: In this paper, corrosion of cast iron is presented in atmospheric, soil and splash zone conditions along the eastern coast of the Arabian Gulf. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Saricimen H.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Quddus A.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Ahmad A.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Aksakal A.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | And 2 more authors.
Materials and Corrosion | Year: 2010

Corrosion performance of copper and brass coupons during 15 month exposure in atmosphere, underground and splash zone conditions was undertaken at Khaleej Mardumah test site located in the industrial/coastal city of Jubail along the Arabian Gulf coast, Saudi Arabia. The environmental indicators such as soil, groundwater, seawater, and air particulate samples were assessed. The exposed corrosion coupons were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to identify the corrosion products and study their surface morphology. Corrosion rate was determined by weight loss method. The experimental results indicated that a high degree of variation in temperature and humidity in this region combined with high chloride and sulfate concentrations was primarily responsible for the corrosion of copper and brass at Khaleej Mardumah test site. Underground environment was the most corrosive to both copper and brass coupons studied, followed by splash zone. Corrosion rates were found to range from 4.29 to 10.84 mm/y for copper and from 2.47 to 29.31 mm/y for brass. Corrosion rates of copper and brass obtained in this study are also compared with those reported for other locations worldwide. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Saricimen H.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Ahmad A.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Quddus A.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Aksakal A.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance | Year: 2010

Corrosion performance of bare and galvanized mild steel in atmospheric, soil and splash zone exposure conditions was evaluated at a Khaleej Mardumah test station (KMTS) in Jubail Industrial City (JIC) located at Arabian Gulf coast. The samples were exposed for a period of 15 months. During the exposure, the environmental conditions were periodically monitored by analysis of air, soil, groundwater, and seawater samples. The corroded mild steel and galvanized steel samples were examined by SEM, XRD and XRF to identify the corrosion products and study their surface morphology. Weight loss method was employed to determine the corrosion rates. The experimental results showed that intense temperature and humidity variations as well as high chloride and sulfate concentrations in the region result in severe corrosion of bare mild steel especially under the splash zone conditions. A comparison with the corrosion data for other parts of the world shows that atmospheric and soil environments at the selected test site are significantly corrosive to mild steel. The splash zone, on the other hand, is much more corrosive to mild and galvanized steel than the other parts of the world. © ASM International.


Al-Maghrabi M.A.,Dalhousie University | Al-Maghrabi M.A.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Van Der Bosch N.,Dalhousie University | Sanderson R.J.,Dalhousie University | And 3 more authors.
Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters | Year: 2011

A new design for a 64-electrode cell plate for combinatorial electrochemical studies of electrodes for Li-ion cells is described. This plate, made using circuit board technology, has advantages over previously used plates made by sputtering electrode pads onto glass.It eliminates spurious capacity from the sputtered lead pattern exposed to electrolyte, it can be easily and economically produced in quantity, and it is more robust. This plate design was tested using a sputtered silicon wedge. With these improved plates, the irreversible capacity if Li xSi was measured to be less than 70 mAh/g or less than 2 of the reversible capacity. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.


Al-Maghrabi M.A.,Dalhousie University | Al-Maghrabi M.A.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Thorne J.S.,Dalhousie University | Sanderson R.J.,Dalhousie University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2012

In the present work three pseudobinary libraries of the Sn-Si-C system were produced using combinatorial methods. X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of these libraries and Mossbauer spectroscopy was employed to probe the atomic environment. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed using a multichannel pseudopotentiostat to study the behavior of these materials as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries. These three libraries were compared in terms of the phases formed, amorphous vs. crystalline structure, the reversible capacity as a function of composition and the capacity retention. The addition of carbon to Sn-Si inhibits the aggregation of Sn into regions of relatively pure tin. This minimization of free tin has the effect of improving cycleability by reducing the adverse effects of volume expansion, by eliminating two-phase coexistence regions during delithiation and lithiation. © 2012 The Electrochemical Society.


Ahmad M.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Bajahlan A.S.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Miran M.M.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Uses of wastewater drives significant economic activity, supports countless livelihoods particularly those for developing countries. While using wastewater, the challenge is to identify practical, affordable safeguards that do not threaten the health of users. In Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, treated sewage effluent (TSE) is used for landscape purposes. In the present study, the odour problem caused by TSE in community area has been addressed. Samples were collected and analysed for total coliform, odour, trihalomethanes (THMs), total organic carbon (TOC) and other physicochemical parameters. Results show that in distribution network, residual chlorine was below the detection limit, turbidity, THMs, TOC and total coliform concentration was much higher than point source, and concentration of these parameters was further increased in problematic areas. It was also observed that areas with odourous problem were at the tail of irrigation network. This indicates that odour problem was due to less residual chlorine high turbidity, high rate of coliform and TOC. In odourous water samples, carbon disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were also identified by GC/MS, while in other areas where there was no odour, both these compounds were not detected. Odour problem was successfully resolved by improving sand filtration system to minimise turbidity the main cause of odour, increasing the residual chlorine at the treatment plant and regularly flushing the distribution network. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ahmad M.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Bajahlan A.S.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Al-Hajery K.A.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2010

Present study was conducted to check the feasibility of industrial reclaimed water (IRW) for irrigation purposes and its impact on plant growth and soil properties. Different types of grass, shrubs, ground cover and trees were grown in three experimental plots. Each plot was subdivided into three subplots for shrubs, ground cover and trees. Plot A was irrigated with industrial reclaimed water (IRW), plot B with (50/50) mixture of both IRW and treated sewage effluent (TSE) and plot C with TSE. Results showed that IRW is highly saline with high sodium (914 mg/L), SAR (42.8) and TDS (3054 mg/L) as compared to TSE (Na 220 mg/L, SAR 8.6 & TDS 1081 mg/L). Plants irrigated with IRW and mixture of IRW and TSE (50/50) indicated mortality rate of 57% and 12% respectively, while plants irrigated with TSE have only 4% mortality. Soil analysis reconfirmed the residual harmful effects of IRW on soil properties as indicated by substantial increase in pH from 8.56 to 10.72, carbonate and bicarbonate from 243 to 728 mg/kg and alkalinity from 220 to 800 mg/kg in soil irrigated by IRW. Notably mortality rate of some salt resistant varieties was less than others. It is concluded that pure IRW is not suitable for irrigation purposes, while mixture of TSE/IRW (50/50) may be fit for salt tolerance varieties. Industrial reclaimed water can be used if the quality of IRW is further improved at industrial wastewater treatment plant or some other amendment techniques as wash down the salts with TSE from root zone. © 2010 Friends Science Publishers.


Qaisaran E.M.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu | Al-Qurashi A.A.,Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu
WIT Transactions on the Built Environment | Year: 2011

Yanbu Industrial City (YIC) is known as a new, modern, and heavy industrial urbanization. For that reason the need for new urban water sustainability is probably more evident than in other cities. YIC has been a utility island, self-contained and unconnected to any regional power or water systems. Water sustainability has become a top policy discussion to maintain or enhance all natural and urban elements' growth without compromising the future. YIC where urban areas, their economies and industries are expected to grow rapidly over the next few decades and where natural resource use and environmental quality are already raising grave concerns. Fortunately, Royal Commission Leaders have responded to the challenge by making urban water sustainability development a high priority. The Royal Commission at Yanbu has addressed and overcome many challenges to balance the never ending water sustainability by implementing the integration of all aspects of infrastructure work including: water desalination and distribution, seawater cooling, wastewater treatment industrial sewer), reclaimed water network (fire fighting), sanitary wastewater treatment, irrigation water network and environmental monitoring programs which include ambient monitoring which helps to ensure industries' compliance with environmental regulations and standards, and provides baseline data for use in trend predictions and planning strategies. In addition to ambient monitoring which covers meteorology; air, ground-water, seawater quality; marine and terrestrial ecosystems. YIC's goal of urban water sustainability is to "meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.© 2012 WIT Press.

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