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Feugier A.,Royal Canin SAS | van Hoek I.,Royal Canin SAS
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are larger and have higher insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations than cats without HCM. Hypothesis/Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess echocardiographic findings in a colony of adult cats to determine the relationship between early growth and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Animals: Twenty-eight neutered adult cats (20 males, 8 females) from a colony ≥3 years of age for which growth curves were available. Methods: Case-control study. Physical examination and echocardiography were performed, and body weight, body condition score (BCS), and head length and width were measured. Circulating glucose, insulin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and IGF-1 concentrations were measured and growth data were collected. Stepwise multivariate analyses were performed. Results: Mean age was 5.2 ± 1.1 years. Current BCSs ranged from 4 to 9 (median, 6) and mean body weight was 4.88 ± 1.29 kg. Variation in body weight was apparent by 6 (mean = 3.26 ± 0.80 kg) and 12 months of age (mean = 4.02 ± 1.02 kg). Cardiac abnormalities included a cardiac murmur (n = 7; 24%), gallop (n = 3; 10%), and arrhythmia (n = 1; 4%). Fourteen of 28 cats (50%) had echocardiographic evidence of LVH. Head width (P = .017), body weight (P < .001), NT-proBNP (P = .023), and IGF-1 (P = .013-.022) were significantly associated with selected measures of LVH. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Potential associations between body size, IGF-1, LVH, and HCM warrant future prospective studies. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Chetboul V.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Chetboul V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Reynolds B.S.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Trehiou-Sechi E.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

High salt dry expanded diets are commercially available for cats to increase water intake and urine volume, as part of the prevention or treatment of naturally occurring urinary stone formation (calcium oxalates and struvites). However, chronic high salt intake may have potential cardiovascular adverse effects in both humans, especially in aging individuals, and several animal models. The objective of this prospective, randomized, blinded, and controlled study was to assess the longterm cardiovascular effects of high salt intake in healthy aged cats. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1±2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group was fed a high salt diet (3.1 g/Mcal sodium, 5.5 g/Mcal chloride) and the other group a control diet of same composition except for salt content (1.0 g/Mcal sodium, 2.2 g/Mcal chloride). Clinical examination, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements, standard transthoracic echocardiography and conventional Doppler examinations were repeatedly performed on non-sedated cats by trained observers before and over 24 months after diet implementation. Radial and longitudinal velocities of the left ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were also assessed in systole and diastole using 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging. Statistics were performed using a general linear model. No significant effect of dietary salt intake was observed on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values. Out of the 33 tested imaging variables, the only one affected by dietary salt intake was the radial early on late diastolic velocity ratio assessed in the endocardium of the left ventricular free wall, statistically lower in the high salt diet group at 12 months only (P = 0.044). In conclusion, in this study involving healthy aged cats, chronic high dietary salt intake was not associated with an increased risk of systemic arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction, as observed in some elderly people, salt-sensitive patients and animal models. © 2014 Chetboul et al.


PubMed | National Veterinary School of Toulouse, Royal Canin SAS, University of Nantes, Royal Veterinary College and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

High salt dry expanded diets are commercially available for cats to increase water intake and urine volume, as part of the prevention or treatment of naturally occurring urinary stone formation (calcium oxalates and struvites). However, chronic high salt intake may have potential cardiovascular adverse effects in both humans, especially in aging individuals, and several animal models. The objective of this prospective, randomized, blinded, and controlled study was to assess the long-term cardiovascular effects of high salt intake in healthy aged cats. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1 2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group was fed a high salt diet (3.1 g/Mcal sodium, 5.5 g/Mcal chloride) and the other group a control diet of same composition except for salt content (1.0 g/Mcal sodium, 2.2 g/Mcal chloride). Clinical examination, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements, standard transthoracic echocardiography and conventional Doppler examinations were repeatedly performed on non-sedated cats by trained observers before and over 24 months after diet implementation. Radial and longitudinal velocities of the left ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were also assessed in systole and diastole using 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging. Statistics were performed using a general linear model. No significant effect of dietary salt intake was observed on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values. Out of the 33 tested imaging variables, the only one affected by dietary salt intake was the radial early on late diastolic velocity ratio assessed in the endocardium of the left ventricular free wall, statistically lower in the high salt diet group at 12 months only (P = 0.044). In conclusion, in this study involving healthy aged cats, chronic high dietary salt intake was not associated with an increased risk of systemic arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction, as observed in some elderly people, salt-sensitive patients and animal models.


Campos M.,Ghent University | Van Hoek I.,Royal Canin SAS | Peremans K.,Ghent University | Daminet S.,Ghent University
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) was developed after bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was no longer commercially available. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) as an aid to diagnostic follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in humans and for thyroid remnant ablation with radioiodine. In addition, rhTSH is used in human medicine to evaluate thyroid reserve capacity and to enhance radioiodine uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter. Likewise, rhTSH has been used in veterinary medicine over the last decade. The most important veterinary use of rhTSH is thyroidal functional reserve testing for the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism. Recent pilot studies performed at Ghent University in Belgium have investigated the use of rhTSH to optimize radioiodine treatment of canine thyroid carcinoma and feline hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine treatment optimization may allow a decreased therapeutic dosage of radioiodine and thus may improve radioprotection. This review outlines the current uses of rhTSH in human and veterinary medicine, emphasizing research performed in dogs and cats, as well as potential future applications. © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Concha A.,University of Lincoln | Mills D.S.,University of Lincoln | Feugier A.,Royal Canin SAS | Zulch H.,University of Lincoln | And 3 more authors.
Chemical senses | Year: 2014

False negatives are recorded in every chemical detection system, but when animals are used as a scent detector, some false negatives can arise as a result of a failure in the link between detection and the trained alert response, or a failure of the handler to identify the positive alert. A false negative response can be critical in certain scenarios, such as searching for a live person or detecting explosives. In this study, we investigated whether the nature of sniffing behavior in trained detection dogs during a controlled scent-detection task differs in response to true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. A total of 200 videos of 10 working detection dogs were pseudorandomly selected and analyzed frame by frame to quantify sniffing duration and the number of sniffing episodes recorded in a Go/No-Go single scent-detection task using an eight-choice test apparatus. We found that the sniffing duration of true negatives is significantly shorter than false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Furthermore, dogs only ever performed one sniffing episode towards true negatives, but two sniffing episodes commonly occurred in the other situations. These results demonstrate how the nature of sniffing can be used to more effectively assess odor detection by dogs used as biological detection devices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.


Reynolds B.S.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Massal M.R.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Nguyen P.,Unite de Nutrition et dEndocrinologie | Gregoire L.L.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered to be the best indicator of overall kidney function. The major objectives of this study were to compare plasma exogenous creatinine clearance (PECC) with a reference method, to establish reference intervals (RIs) for PECC and to assess the effects of indexation of GFR to bodyweight (BW) in cats. PECC was compared with urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine (UECC) in six clinically healthy domestic shorthair cats (experiment 1). Tentative RIs were determined according to current guidelines and the effects of indexation to BW and of covariables on GFR were assessed in 43 clinically healthy cats of various breeds (experiment 2).PECC was 15% higher than UECC (P < 0.01), but the two estimates were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.97, P = 0.001). RIs for PECC were 6.4-21.3 mL/min or 1.2-4.9 mL/min/kg. The absolute (i.e. non-indexed) GFR value was not dependent on BW. Thus, indexation of GFR to BW in cats would not standardize the GFR value, but could introduce bias in clinical interpretation. Significant effects of breed, plasma protein concentration and plasma albumin concentration on GFR were demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, when assessed separately, were also weakly correlated with GFR in healthy cats. These combined findings contribute to a better understanding of renal function assessment in cats. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Royal Canin SAS, National Veterinary School of Toulouse and Unite de Nutrition et dEndocrinologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) | Year: 2014

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered to be the best indicator of overall kidney function. The major objectives of this study were to compare plasma exogenous creatinine clearance (PECC) with a reference method, to establish reference intervals (RIs) for PECC and to assess the effects of indexation of GFR to bodyweight (BW) in cats. PECC was compared with urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine (UECC) in six clinically healthy domestic shorthair cats (experiment 1). Tentative RIs were determined according to current guidelines and the effects of indexation to BW and of covariables on GFR were assessed in 43 clinically healthy cats of various breeds (experiment 2). PECC was 15% higher than UECC (P<0.01), but the two estimates were strongly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P=0.001). RIs for PECC were 6.4-21.3mL/min or 1.2-4.9mL/min/kg. The absolute (i.e. non-indexed) GFR value was not dependent on BW. Thus, indexation of GFR to BW in cats would not standardize the GFR value, but could introduce bias in clinical interpretation. Significant effects of breed, plasma protein concentration and plasma albumin concentration on GFR were demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, when assessed separately, were also weakly correlated with GFR in healthy cats. These combined findings contribute to a better understanding of renal function assessment in cats.


Elliott D.A.,Royal Canin SAS
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice | Year: 2011

Nutritional therapy has a key role in the conservative management of renal disease. This role is even more vital with the advent of advanced renal replacement therapies to support patients with life threatening severe oliguric or anuric acute uremia or the International Renal Interest Society stage IV chronic kidney disease. Nutritional assessment and institution of nutritional support is crucial because dialysis only partially alleviates uremic anorexia. Dialytic patients have a higher risk of protein calorie, iron, zinc, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, and carnitine malnutritions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Royal Canin SAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice | Year: 2011

Nutritional therapy has a key role in the conservative management of renal disease. This role is even more vital with the advent of advanced renal replacement therapies to support patients with life threatening severe oliguric or anuric acute uremia or the International Renal Interest Society stage IV chronic kidney disease. Nutritional assessment and institution of nutritional support is crucial because dialysis only partially alleviates uremic anorexia. Dialytic patients have a higher risk of protein calorie, iron, zinc, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, and carnitine malnutritions.


PubMed | Royal Veterinary College and Royal Canin SAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine | Year: 2016

Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic.Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD.A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats ( 9 years).Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models.A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92).Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease.

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