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Aimargues, France

Backus R.C.,University of Missouri | Cave N.J.,Massey University | Ganjam V.K.,University of Missouri | Turner J.B.M.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Biourge V.C.,Royal Canin Research Center
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2010

High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Wiseman-Orr M.L.,University of Glasgow | Reid J.,University of Glasgow | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Obesity is thought to affect quality of life, but limited objective data exist to support this supposition. The current study aim was to use a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both before and after weight loss, in obese client-owned dogs. Fifty obese dogs were included, and represented a variety of breeds and genders. Prior to weight loss, owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire to determine HRQOL. Thirty of the dogs successfully completed their weight loss programme and reached target, and owners then completed a follow-up questionnaire. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed to scores corresponding to each of four factors (vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety and pain), and scored on a scale of 0-6. Changes in the scores were used to explore the sensitivity of the questionnaire, and scores were correlated with responses to direct questions about quality of life and pain, as well as weight loss. Dogs that failed to complete their weight loss programme had lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores than those successfully losing weight (P= 0.03 for both). In the 30 dogs that completed, weight loss led to an increased vitality score (P< 0.001), and decreased scores for both emotional disturbance (P< 0.001) and pain (P< 0.001). However, there was no change in anxiety (P= 0.09). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (rP= 0.43, P= 0.02) and percentage body fat loss (rP= 0.39, P= 0.03). These results indicate demonstrable improvement in HRQOL for obese dogs that successfully lose weight. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Serisier S.,Royal Canin Research Center | Feugier A.,Royal Canin Research Center | Delmotte S.,MAD Environnement Ltd | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center | German A.J.,University of Liverpool
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. © 2014 Serisier et al.

Tvarijonaviciute A.,University of Murcia | Ceron J.J.,University of Murcia | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Morris P.J.,Center for Pet Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2012

The aim of the current study was to measure circulating metabolic and inflammation-related biochemical analytes in obese cats before and after weight loss. Thirty-seven overweight neutered cats were studied, median body weight 6.85 kg (range, 4.70 to 10.30 kg), representing a range of ages and both sexes. An individualized weight-loss program was devised for each cat and monitored until completion. Body fat mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whereas plasma concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APPs; eg, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A), hormones (eg, insulin, IGF-1, and adiponectin), and enzymes (eg, butyrylcholinesterase and paraoxonase type 1 [PON-1]) associated with inflammation and metabolic compounds (eg, glucose) were also measured. No significant changes were found in APPs after weight loss (P > 0.3), but significant increases in plasma adiponectin (P = 0.021) and IGF-1 (P = 0.036) were seen, whereas insulin (P < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment (P = 0.005) decreased significantly. Plasma concentrations before weight loss of PON-1 (P = 0.004), adiponectin (P = 0.02), and IGF-1 (P = 0.048) were less in cats that failed to complete weight loss than cats that were successful, whereas glucose concentration was greater. Finally, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that lean tissue loss during weight management was associated with percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, greater lean tissue loss; R = 0.71, P < 0.001) and plasma adiponectin concentration before weight loss (lesser adiponectin, more lean tissue loss; R = -0.52, P = 0.023). In conclusion, various metabolic abnormalities occur in feline obesity, and these can be linked to outcomes of weight-loss programs. The changes that occur with weight loss suggest an improved metabolic status. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Fieten H.,University Utrecht | Hooijer-Nouwens B.D.,University Utrecht | Biourge V.C.,Royal Canin Research Center | Leegwater P.A.J.,University Utrecht | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Copper-associated hepatitis is an inherited disease in the Labrador Retriever. Apart from genetic factors, dietary intake of copper and zinc are suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis. Objectives: To investigate whether dietary copper and zinc levels of commercially available dry diets are associated with hepatic copper and zinc concentrations in Labrador Retrievers. Animals: Fifty-five Labrador Retrievers that were fed a single brand and type of commercial dry food for at least 1 year. Of these, 44 dogs were family members of Labrador Retrievers with copper-associated hepatitis. Methods: Liver biopsies, blood samples, and diet samples were obtained. Liver specimens were scored histologically and copper and zinc concentrations were quantified. Dietary concentrations of copper and zinc were measured. The association between dietary intake of copper and zinc and hepatic copper and zinc concentrations was investigated by linear regression analysis. Results: High dietary copper and low dietary zinc levels were significantly associated with high hepatic copper levels. No association between dietary intake and hepatic zinc was present. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Dietary copper and zinc at current levels in commercially available dry dog food can influence hepatic copper and can be a risk factor for the development of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador Retrievers with a genetic susceptibility to copper. © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

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