Aimargues, France
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Fieten H.,University Utrecht | Hooijer-Nouwens B.D.,University Utrecht | Biourge V.C.,Royal Canin Research Center | Leegwater P.A.J.,University Utrecht | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Copper-associated hepatitis is an inherited disease in the Labrador Retriever. Apart from genetic factors, dietary intake of copper and zinc are suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis. Objectives: To investigate whether dietary copper and zinc levels of commercially available dry diets are associated with hepatic copper and zinc concentrations in Labrador Retrievers. Animals: Fifty-five Labrador Retrievers that were fed a single brand and type of commercial dry food for at least 1 year. Of these, 44 dogs were family members of Labrador Retrievers with copper-associated hepatitis. Methods: Liver biopsies, blood samples, and diet samples were obtained. Liver specimens were scored histologically and copper and zinc concentrations were quantified. Dietary concentrations of copper and zinc were measured. The association between dietary intake of copper and zinc and hepatic copper and zinc concentrations was investigated by linear regression analysis. Results: High dietary copper and low dietary zinc levels were significantly associated with high hepatic copper levels. No association between dietary intake and hepatic zinc was present. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Dietary copper and zinc at current levels in commercially available dry dog food can influence hepatic copper and can be a risk factor for the development of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador Retrievers with a genetic susceptibility to copper. © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Wallis L.J.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Wallis L.J.,University of Vienna | Range F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Muller C.A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Psychology | Year: 2014

Attention is pivotal to consciousness, perception, cognition, and working memory in all mammals, and therefore changes in attention over the lifespan are likely to influence development and aging of all of these functions. Due to their evolutionary and developmental history, the dog is being recognized as an important species for modeling human healthspan, aging and associated diseases. In this study, we investigated the normal lifespan development of attentiveness of pet dogs in naturalistic situations, and compared the resulting cross-sectional developmental trajectories with data from previous studies in humans. We tested a sample of 145 Border collies (6 months to 14 years) with humans and objects or food as attention attractors, in order to assess their attentional capture, sustained and selective attention, and sensorimotor abilities. Our results reveal differences in task relevance in sustained attentional performance when watching a human or a moving object, which may be explained by life-long learning processes involving such stimuli. During task switching we found that dogs' selective attention and sensorimotor abilities showed differences between age groups, with performance peaking at middle age. Dogs' sensorimotor abilities showed a quadratic distribution with age and were correlated with selective attention performance. Our results support the hypothesis that the development and senescence of sensorimotor and attentional control may be fundamentally interrelated. Additionally, attentional capture, sustained attention, and sensorimotor control developmental trajectories paralleled those found in humans. Given that the development of attention is similar across humans and dogs, we propose that the same regulatory mechanisms are likely to be present in both species. Finally, this cross-sectional study provides the first description of age group changes in attention over the lifespan of pet dogs. © 2014 Wallis, Range, Müller, Serisier, Huber and Virányi.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Bissot T.,Royal Canin Research Center | Morris P.J.,Waltham Center for Pet Nutrition | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

A newly-formulated, high protein high fibre (HPHF) diet has recently been shown to improve satiety in dogs. The current study examined its performance during weight loss in client-owned dogs with naturally-occurring obesity. Fifteen dogs were fed the HPHF diet, whilst a matched 'control' group of 27 dogs, received a high protein medium fibre diet (HPMF), with an equivalent caloric density. Baseline characteristics (signalment, percentage overweight, and body fat percentage) were not significantly different between groups. However, percentage weight loss was greater (median [range] 31.8% [12.0-41.2%] vs. 20.0% [5.9-45.0%], P = 0.016) and mean rate of weight loss faster (median [range] 1.0%/week [0.3-1.6%] vs. 0.7%/week [0.3-1.5%], P = 0.028) on HPHF compared with HPMF. Percentage body fat mass decrease (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) was also greater in dogs fed the HPHF diet (median (range] 58% [32-85%) vs. 37% [15-72%), P = 0.002). Thus, a diet formulated to include high levels of both protein and fibre, improves outcome during weight loss in obese dogs. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Backus R.C.,University of Missouri | Cave N.J.,Massey University | Ganjam V.K.,University of Missouri | Turner J.B.M.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Biourge V.C.,Royal Canin Research Center
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2010

High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Serisier S.,Royal Canin Research Center | Feugier A.,Royal Canin Research Center | Delmotte S.,MAD Environnement Ltd | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center | German A.J.,University of Liverpool
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. © 2014 Serisier et al.


Fieten H.,University Utrecht | Biourge V.C.,Royal Canin Research Center | Watson A.L.,Royal Canin Research Center | Leegwater P.A.J.,University Utrecht | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Canine hereditary copper-associated hepatitis is characterized by gradual hepatic copper accumulation eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Therapy is aimed at creating a negative copper balance with metal chelators, of which d-penicillamine is the most commonly used. d-penicillamine often causes gastro-intestinal side effects and life-long continuous therapy may lead to a deficiency of copper and zinc. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet as an alternative to continuous d-penicillamine treatment for the long-term management of canine copper-associated hepatitis.Sixteen affected Labrador retrievers were followed for a median time period of 19.1. months (range, 5.9-39. months) after being effectively treated with d-penicillamine. The dogs were maintained on a diet containing 1.3. ±. 0.3. mg. copper/1000. kcal and 64.3. ±. 5.9. mg. zinc/1000. kcal. Liver biopsies were taken every 6. months for histological evaluation and copper determination. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum albumin were determined.Dietary treatment alone was sufficient to maintain hepatic copper concentration below 800. mg/kg dry weight liver in 12 dogs during the study period. Four dogs needed re-treatment with d-penicillamine. ALT activity and albumin concentration were not associated with hepatic copper concentration, but showed a significant association with the stage and grade of hepatitis respectively. In conclusion, a low-copper, high-zinc diet can be a valuable alternative to continuous d-penicillamine administration for long-term management of dogs with copper-associated hepatitis. The copper re-accumulation rate of an individual dog should be considered in the design of a long-term management protocol and in determining re-biopsy intervals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Tvarijonaviciute A.,University of Murcia | Ceron J.J.,University of Murcia | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Morris P.J.,Center for Pet Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2012

The aim of the current study was to measure circulating metabolic and inflammation-related biochemical analytes in obese cats before and after weight loss. Thirty-seven overweight neutered cats were studied, median body weight 6.85 kg (range, 4.70 to 10.30 kg), representing a range of ages and both sexes. An individualized weight-loss program was devised for each cat and monitored until completion. Body fat mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whereas plasma concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APPs; eg, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A), hormones (eg, insulin, IGF-1, and adiponectin), and enzymes (eg, butyrylcholinesterase and paraoxonase type 1 [PON-1]) associated with inflammation and metabolic compounds (eg, glucose) were also measured. No significant changes were found in APPs after weight loss (P > 0.3), but significant increases in plasma adiponectin (P = 0.021) and IGF-1 (P = 0.036) were seen, whereas insulin (P < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment (P = 0.005) decreased significantly. Plasma concentrations before weight loss of PON-1 (P = 0.004), adiponectin (P = 0.02), and IGF-1 (P = 0.048) were less in cats that failed to complete weight loss than cats that were successful, whereas glucose concentration was greater. Finally, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that lean tissue loss during weight management was associated with percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, greater lean tissue loss; R = 0.71, P < 0.001) and plasma adiponectin concentration before weight loss (lesser adiponectin, more lean tissue loss; R = -0.52, P = 0.023). In conclusion, various metabolic abnormalities occur in feline obesity, and these can be linked to outcomes of weight-loss programs. The changes that occur with weight loss suggest an improved metabolic status. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Tvarijonaviciute A.,University of Murcia | Ceron J.J.,University of Murcia | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Cuthbertson D.J.,University of Liverpool | And 3 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Background: Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs.Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays.Results: Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P < 0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P = 0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030) in ORMD dogs.Conclusions: In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss. © 2012 Tvarijonaviciute et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Wiseman-Orr M.L.,University of Glasgow | Reid J.,University of Glasgow | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Obesity is thought to affect quality of life, but limited objective data exist to support this supposition. The current study aim was to use a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both before and after weight loss, in obese client-owned dogs. Fifty obese dogs were included, and represented a variety of breeds and genders. Prior to weight loss, owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire to determine HRQOL. Thirty of the dogs successfully completed their weight loss programme and reached target, and owners then completed a follow-up questionnaire. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed to scores corresponding to each of four factors (vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety and pain), and scored on a scale of 0-6. Changes in the scores were used to explore the sensitivity of the questionnaire, and scores were correlated with responses to direct questions about quality of life and pain, as well as weight loss. Dogs that failed to complete their weight loss programme had lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores than those successfully losing weight (P= 0.03 for both). In the 30 dogs that completed, weight loss led to an increased vitality score (P< 0.001), and decreased scores for both emotional disturbance (P< 0.001) and pain (P< 0.001). However, there was no change in anxiety (P= 0.09). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (rP= 0.43, P= 0.02) and percentage body fat loss (rP= 0.39, P= 0.03). These results indicate demonstrable improvement in HRQOL for obese dogs that successfully lose weight. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Morris P.J.,The Center for Pet Nutrition | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Regain after weight loss is widely reported in humans, but there is little information on this phenomenon in dogs. The current study aim was to determine long-term success of a weight loss regime and those factors linked with regain. Thirty-three obese dogs, that had successfully lost weight, were included, all enrolled between December 2004 and May 2009. After weight loss, dogs were switched to a maintenance regime and follow-up weight checks were performed periodically. A review of cases that had completed their weight programme was held during the summer of 2010 and a follow-up check was subsequently conducted, where dogs were reweighed and information was collected on current feeding practices.Median duration of follow-up was 640. days (119-1828. days). Fourteen dogs (42%) maintained weight, 3 (9%) lost >5% additional weight, and 16 (48%) gained >5% weight. Dogs fed a purpose-formulated weight loss diet regained less weight than those switched onto a standard maintenance diet (P= 0.0016). Energy intake at the time of follow-up was significantly higher in those dogs fed a standard maintenance diet, compared with those that had remained on a purpose-formulated weight loss diet (P= 0.017). These results suggest that weight regain occurs in about half of dogs after successful weight loss. Long-term use of a purpose-formulated weight management diet can significantly limit regain in the follow-up period, likely by limiting food intake. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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