Royal Canin Research Center

Aimargues, France

Royal Canin Research Center

Aimargues, France
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Comblain F.,University of Liège | Serisier S.,Royal Canin Research Center | Barthelemy N.,University of Liège | Balligand M.,University of Liège | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2016

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful, degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects the synovial joints and leads finally to the loss of mobility. It is highly prevalent in dogs. Nowadays, no cure exists, and the pharmacological treatment is limited to clinical signs alleviation. Some positive beneficial effects have been highlighted with dietary supplements in the course of dog OA. The goals of this narrative review are to summarize the scientific data available in the literature on dietary supplements assessed in dog OA and to discuss some trails about how to improve several aspects of research and issues with dietary supplements, such as bioavailability and dosage regimen. Chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine, undenaturated type II collagen, avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables, curcumin and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied in dog OA and therefore discussed in the present review. Most of them showed anticatabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning their pharmacokinetics. Their bioavailability is low, but new formulations are developed to enhance their gastrointestinal absorption. The clinical relevance of these new formulations compared to native forms should be demonstrated in good clinical trials. Even if further investigations are needed, dietary supplements should be considered in OA management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Titcomb J.M.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Queau Y.,Royal Canin Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Most weight loss studies in obese dogs assess rate and percentage of weight loss in the first 2-3 months, rather than the likelihood of successfully reaching target weight. Objective: To determine outcome of controlled weight loss programs for obese dogs, and to determine the factors associated with successful completion. Animals: 143 obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight loss program. Methods: This was a cohort study of obese dogs attending a referral weight management clinic. Dogs were studied during their period of weight loss, and cases classified according to outcome as "completed" (reached target weight), "euthanized" (was euthanized before reaching target weight), or "stopped prematurely" (program stopped early for other reasons). Factors associated with successful completion were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression. Results: 87/143 dogs (61%) completed their weight loss program, 11 [8%] died or were euthanized, and the remaining 45 [32%] stopped prematurely. Reasons for dogs stopping prematurely included inability to contact owner, refusal to comply with weight management advice, or development of another illness. Successful weight loss was positively associated with a faster rate (P < .001), a longer duration (P < .001), and feeding a dried weight management diet (P = .010), but negatively associated with starting body fat (P < .001), and use of dirlotapide (P = .0046). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Just over half of all obese dogs on a controlled weight loss program reach their target weight. Future studies should better clarify reasons for success in individual cases, and also the role of factors such as activity and behavioral modification. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Morris P.J.,Center for Pet Nutrition | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center
American Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2010

Objective - To assess performance of a portable bioimpedance monitor for measurement of body composition in dogs. Animals - 24 client-owned dogs. Procedures - Percentage body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and with a portable bioimpedance monitor, and body condition score (BCS) was measured by use of a 9-integer scale. Results - Although the precision of the bioimpedance monitor was good, this varied among dogs. Body position (standing vs sternal) had no effect on bioimpedance results. There was a significant association between results determined via DEXA and bioimpedance, but this association was weaker than between DEXA and BCS. When agreement was assessed via Bland-Altman plot, the bioimpedance monitor under- and overestimated values at high and low body fat percentages, respectively. In 9 dogs, body fat measurements were taken before and after weight loss to determine the proportional loss of tissue mass during weight management. There was a significant difference in the estimated percentage of weight lost as fat between the DEXA and bioimpedance methods. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Although percentage body fat measured by use of a portable bioimpedance monitor correlated well with values determined via DEXA, the imprecision and inaccuracy in dogs with high percentage body fat could make the monitor inappropriate for clinical practice.


Fieten H.,University Utrecht | Hooijer-Nouwens B.D.,University Utrecht | Biourge V.C.,Royal Canin Research Center | Leegwater P.A.J.,University Utrecht | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Copper-associated hepatitis is an inherited disease in the Labrador Retriever. Apart from genetic factors, dietary intake of copper and zinc are suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis. Objectives: To investigate whether dietary copper and zinc levels of commercially available dry diets are associated with hepatic copper and zinc concentrations in Labrador Retrievers. Animals: Fifty-five Labrador Retrievers that were fed a single brand and type of commercial dry food for at least 1 year. Of these, 44 dogs were family members of Labrador Retrievers with copper-associated hepatitis. Methods: Liver biopsies, blood samples, and diet samples were obtained. Liver specimens were scored histologically and copper and zinc concentrations were quantified. Dietary concentrations of copper and zinc were measured. The association between dietary intake of copper and zinc and hepatic copper and zinc concentrations was investigated by linear regression analysis. Results: High dietary copper and low dietary zinc levels were significantly associated with high hepatic copper levels. No association between dietary intake and hepatic zinc was present. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Dietary copper and zinc at current levels in commercially available dry dog food can influence hepatic copper and can be a risk factor for the development of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador Retrievers with a genetic susceptibility to copper. © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Wallis L.J.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Wallis L.J.,University of Vienna | Range F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Muller C.A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Psychology | Year: 2014

Attention is pivotal to consciousness, perception, cognition, and working memory in all mammals, and therefore changes in attention over the lifespan are likely to influence development and aging of all of these functions. Due to their evolutionary and developmental history, the dog is being recognized as an important species for modeling human healthspan, aging and associated diseases. In this study, we investigated the normal lifespan development of attentiveness of pet dogs in naturalistic situations, and compared the resulting cross-sectional developmental trajectories with data from previous studies in humans. We tested a sample of 145 Border collies (6 months to 14 years) with humans and objects or food as attention attractors, in order to assess their attentional capture, sustained and selective attention, and sensorimotor abilities. Our results reveal differences in task relevance in sustained attentional performance when watching a human or a moving object, which may be explained by life-long learning processes involving such stimuli. During task switching we found that dogs' selective attention and sensorimotor abilities showed differences between age groups, with performance peaking at middle age. Dogs' sensorimotor abilities showed a quadratic distribution with age and were correlated with selective attention performance. Our results support the hypothesis that the development and senescence of sensorimotor and attentional control may be fundamentally interrelated. Additionally, attentional capture, sustained attention, and sensorimotor control developmental trajectories paralleled those found in humans. Given that the development of attention is similar across humans and dogs, we propose that the same regulatory mechanisms are likely to be present in both species. Finally, this cross-sectional study provides the first description of age group changes in attention over the lifespan of pet dogs. © 2014 Wallis, Range, Müller, Serisier, Huber and Virányi.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Bissot T.,Royal Canin Research Center | Morris P.J.,Waltham Center for Pet Nutrition | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

A newly-formulated, high protein high fibre (HPHF) diet has recently been shown to improve satiety in dogs. The current study examined its performance during weight loss in client-owned dogs with naturally-occurring obesity. Fifteen dogs were fed the HPHF diet, whilst a matched 'control' group of 27 dogs, received a high protein medium fibre diet (HPMF), with an equivalent caloric density. Baseline characteristics (signalment, percentage overweight, and body fat percentage) were not significantly different between groups. However, percentage weight loss was greater (median [range] 31.8% [12.0-41.2%] vs. 20.0% [5.9-45.0%], P = 0.016) and mean rate of weight loss faster (median [range] 1.0%/week [0.3-1.6%] vs. 0.7%/week [0.3-1.5%], P = 0.028) on HPHF compared with HPMF. Percentage body fat mass decrease (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) was also greater in dogs fed the HPHF diet (median (range] 58% [32-85%) vs. 37% [15-72%), P = 0.002). Thus, a diet formulated to include high levels of both protein and fibre, improves outcome during weight loss in obese dogs. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Serisier S.,Royal Canin Research Center | Feugier A.,Royal Canin Research Center | Delmotte S.,MAD Environnement Ltd | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center | German A.J.,University of Liverpool
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. © 2014 Serisier et al.


Tvarijonaviciute A.,University of Murcia | Ceron J.J.,University of Murcia | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Morris P.J.,Center for Pet Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2012

The aim of the current study was to measure circulating metabolic and inflammation-related biochemical analytes in obese cats before and after weight loss. Thirty-seven overweight neutered cats were studied, median body weight 6.85 kg (range, 4.70 to 10.30 kg), representing a range of ages and both sexes. An individualized weight-loss program was devised for each cat and monitored until completion. Body fat mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whereas plasma concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APPs; eg, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A), hormones (eg, insulin, IGF-1, and adiponectin), and enzymes (eg, butyrylcholinesterase and paraoxonase type 1 [PON-1]) associated with inflammation and metabolic compounds (eg, glucose) were also measured. No significant changes were found in APPs after weight loss (P > 0.3), but significant increases in plasma adiponectin (P = 0.021) and IGF-1 (P = 0.036) were seen, whereas insulin (P < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment (P = 0.005) decreased significantly. Plasma concentrations before weight loss of PON-1 (P = 0.004), adiponectin (P = 0.02), and IGF-1 (P = 0.048) were less in cats that failed to complete weight loss than cats that were successful, whereas glucose concentration was greater. Finally, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that lean tissue loss during weight management was associated with percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, greater lean tissue loss; R = 0.71, P < 0.001) and plasma adiponectin concentration before weight loss (lesser adiponectin, more lean tissue loss; R = -0.52, P = 0.023). In conclusion, various metabolic abnormalities occur in feline obesity, and these can be linked to outcomes of weight-loss programs. The changes that occur with weight loss suggest an improved metabolic status. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Tvarijonaviciute A.,University of Murcia | Ceron J.J.,University of Murcia | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Cuthbertson D.J.,University of Liverpool | And 3 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Background: Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs.Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays.Results: Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P < 0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P = 0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030) in ORMD dogs.Conclusions: In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss. © 2012 Tvarijonaviciute et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Morris P.J.,The Center for Pet Nutrition | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Regain after weight loss is widely reported in humans, but there is little information on this phenomenon in dogs. The current study aim was to determine long-term success of a weight loss regime and those factors linked with regain. Thirty-three obese dogs, that had successfully lost weight, were included, all enrolled between December 2004 and May 2009. After weight loss, dogs were switched to a maintenance regime and follow-up weight checks were performed periodically. A review of cases that had completed their weight programme was held during the summer of 2010 and a follow-up check was subsequently conducted, where dogs were reweighed and information was collected on current feeding practices.Median duration of follow-up was 640. days (119-1828. days). Fourteen dogs (42%) maintained weight, 3 (9%) lost >5% additional weight, and 16 (48%) gained >5% weight. Dogs fed a purpose-formulated weight loss diet regained less weight than those switched onto a standard maintenance diet (P= 0.0016). Energy intake at the time of follow-up was significantly higher in those dogs fed a standard maintenance diet, compared with those that had remained on a purpose-formulated weight loss diet (P= 0.017). These results suggest that weight regain occurs in about half of dogs after successful weight loss. Long-term use of a purpose-formulated weight management diet can significantly limit regain in the follow-up period, likely by limiting food intake. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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