The Royal Brompton Hospital

London, United Kingdom

The Royal Brompton Hospital

London, United Kingdom
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Dubrey S.,Hillingdon Hospital | Shah S.,Queens Hospital | Hardman T.,NICHE | Sharma R.,The Royal Brompton Hospital
Postgraduate Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease, the aetiology of which has still to be resolved. The proposed mechanism is that a susceptible genotype is exposed to one or more potential antigens. A sustained inflammatory response follows, which ultimately results in pathognomonic granuloma formation. Various clinical phenotypes exist with specific genetic associations influencing disease susceptibility, protection, and clinical progression. Occupational and environmental factors, including microbial elements, may then effect the development of this disease. Sarcoidosis is a heterogeneous disease, showing geographic and racial variation in clinical presentation. It demonstrates a familial tendency and clear genotype associations. Additionally, it appears to cluster within closely associated populations (eg, work colleagues) and appears to be related to selected occupations and environmental exposures. Frequently occult, but occasionally fatal, this disease has a very variable prognosis. It is also unusual in having no specific biomarker. The epidemiology and multiple factors that appear to influence the aetiology of sarcoidosis illustrate why this disease state is frequently described as a clinical enigma. © 2014, Chowdhury R, et al. Postgrad Med J. All rights reserved.


Cockcroft J.R.,University of Cardiff | Pedersen M.E.,The Royal Brompton Hospital
Journal of Clinical Hypertension | Year: 2012

Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but several other common conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), osteoporosis, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), have been shown to independently increase the risk of CV events and death. The physiological basis for an increased CV risk in those conditions probably lies in the augmentations of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation, and arterial stiffness, which all are also hallmarks of hypertension. β-Blockers have been used for the treatment of hypertension for more than 40years, but a number of meta-analyses have demonstrated that treatment with these agents may be associated with an increased risk of CV events and mortality. However, the majority of primary prevention β-blocker trials employed atenolol, an earlier-generation β 1-selective blocker whose mechanism of action is based on a reduction of cardiac output. Available evidence suggests that vasodilatory β-blockers may be free of the deleterious effects of atenolol. The purpose of this review is to summarize pathophysiologic mechanisms thought to be responsible for the increased CV risk associated with COPD, osteoporosis, and PAD, and examine the possible benefits of vasodilatory β-blockade in those conditions. Our examination focused on nebivolol, a β 1-selective agent with vasodilatory effects most likely mediated via β 3 activation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Dubrey S.W.,Hillingdon Hospital | Sharma R.,The Royal Brompton Hospital | Underwood R.,Harefield Hospital | Mittal T.,Harefield Hospital
Postgraduate Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Cardiac sarcoidosis is one of the most serious and unpredictable aspects of this disease state. Heart involvement frequently presents with arrhythmias or conduction disease, although myocardial infiltration resulting in congestive heart failure may also occur. The prognosis in cardiac sarcoidosis is highly variable, which relates to the heterogeneous nature of heart involvement and marked differences between racial groups. Electrocardiography and echocardiography often provide the first clue to the diagnosis, but advanced imaging studies using positron emission tomography and MRI, in combination with nuclear isotope perfusion scanning are now essential to the diagnosis and management of this condition. The identification of clinically occult cardiac sarcoidosis and the management of isolated and/or asymptomatic heart involvement remain both challenging and contentious. Corticosteroids remain the first treatment choice with the later substitution of immunosuppressive and steroid-sparing therapies. Heart transplantation is an unusual outcome, but when performed, the results are comparable or better than heart transplantation for other disease states. We review the epidemiology, developments in diagnostic techniques and the management of cardiac sarcoidosis. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All right Reserved.


PubMed | London Chest Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, The Royal Brompton Hospital and Barts Health NHS Trust
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of orthodontics | Year: 2015

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of commonly used orthodontic appliances on the magnetic resonance (MR) image quality of the craniofacial region, with special interest in the soft palate and velopharyngeal wall using real-time speech imaging sequences and anatomical imaging of the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and pituitaries.Common orthodontic appliances were studied on 1.5 T scanner using standard spin and gradient echo sequences (based on the American Society for Testing and Materials standard test method) and sequences previously applied for high-resolution anatomical and dynamic real-time imaging during speech. Images were evaluated for the presence and size of artefacts.Metallic orthodontic appliances had different effects on image quality. The most extensive individual effects were associated with the presence of stainless steel archwire, particularly if combined with stainless steel brackets and stainless steel molar bands. With those appliances, diagnostic quality of magnetic resonance imaging speech and palate images will be most likely severely degraded, or speech imaging and imaging of pituitaries and TMJ will be not possible. All non-metallic, non-metallic with Ni/Cr reinforcement or Ni/Ti alloys appliances were of little concern.The results in the study are only valid at 1.5 T and for the sequences and devices used and cannot necessarily be extrapolated to all sequences and devices. Furthermore, both geometry and size of some appliances are subject dependent, and consequently, the effects on the image quality can vary between subjects. Therefore, the results presented in this article should be treated as a guide when assessing the risks of image quality degradation rather than an absolute evaluation of possible artefacts.Appliances manufactured from stainless steel cause extensive artefacts, which may render image non-diagnostic. The presence and type of orthodontic appliances should be always included in the patients screening, so the risks of artefacts can be assessed prior to imaging. Although the risks to patients with fixed orthodontic appliances at 1.5 T MR scanners are low, their secure attachment should be confirmed prior to the examination.


Duncan A.,The Royal Brompton Hospital | Davies S.,The Royal Brompton Hospital | Di Mario C.,The Royal Brompton Hospital | Moat N.,The Royal Brompton Hospital
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2015

Background: Valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic implantation (TAVI) is an alternative to redo surgery for patients with a failing aortic bioprosthesis. A lack of anatomic markers may complicate the procedure. This study reports procedural and midterm outcomes of patients undergoing ViV-TAVI for failing stentless bioprostheses, at a single institution. Methods: A total of 22 consecutive patients with failing homograft (n=17), stented porcine valve (n=3), aortic root bioprosthesis (n=1), or native resuspended aortic valve (n=1) (aged 74 ± 12 years; Society of Thoracic Surgeons 30-day predicted risk of mortality score: 14% ± 8%) were treated with ViV-TAVI, between 2007 and 2014. All had severe aortic regurgitation and were highly symptomatic before TAVI: 41% had chronic kidney disease; 32% had undergone previous coronary bypass grafts; 27% had previous percutaneous coronary intervention; 14% had severe pulmonary disease; 14% had had a stroke. All underwent TAVI with a self-expanding device. Results: The 30-day mortality was 0%. No cases occurred of myocardial infarction, tamponade, stroke, severe bleeding, acute kidney injury, or major vascular complications. Three instances of device migration, and 1 of device embolization, occurred. Permanent pacing was required in 14%. Paravalvular aortic regurgitation was absent or mild in 19, and mild to moderate in 3. Average hospital stay was 8 ± 3 days; all patients were discharged home. Six-month and 1-year mortality was 4.8% and 14.3%, respectively. Aortic valve area and paravalvular aortic regurgitation were unchanged at 1 year. Conclusions: The ViV-TAVI procedure may be performed in high-risk patients with a degenerate stentless bioprosthesis with low 30-day mortality, and 1-year mortality of 14.3%. Although technically challenging, owing to a lack of anatomic markers, satisfactory positioning is possible in most cases, with excellent clinical and echocardiographic outcomes. © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery.


Lim E.,The Royal Brompton Hospital
Thoracic Surgery Clinics | Year: 2012

Barriers can arise if surgeons are unable to effectively convey information on benefits and risks or are unwilling to offer management choices based on patients' preferences. Facilitating shared decision making, allowing patients to carefully think and consider the alternatives, and empowering them to share in the decision-making process improve patient satisfaction and treatment adherence and represent the hallmark of an excellent clinician. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Dusmet M.,The Royal Brompton Hospital
Seminars in Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2015

The remit of this article is principally to explore the risk of malignancy developing in a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) in adulthood. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | The Royal Brompton Hospital
Type: | Journal: EuroIntervention : journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology | Year: 2015

The field of catheter based valve intervention is neither an interventional cardiologist nor a cardiac surgeons playground - but rather is a shared space. Optimal clinical outcomes will be obtained by clinicians from both of these backgrounds working collaboratively, not just in planning and decision making but also in the implantation of these devices. This will become even more important as one goes down the spectrum of risk into intermediate or lower risk patient populations.


PubMed | The Royal Brompton Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Seminars in pediatric surgery | Year: 2015

The remit of this article is principally to explore the risk of malignancy developing in a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) in adulthood.


PubMed | The Royal Brompton Hospital
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery | Year: 2015

Valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic implantation (TAVI) is an alternative to redo surgery for patients with a failing aortic bioprosthesis. A lack of anatomic markers may complicate the procedure. This study reports procedural and midterm outcomes of patients undergoing ViV-TAVI for failing stentless bioprostheses, at a single institution.A total of 22 consecutive patients with failing homograft (n = 17), stented porcine valve (n = 3), aortic root bioprosthesis (n = 1), or native resuspended aortic valve (n = 1) (aged 74 12 years; Society of Thoracic Surgeons 30-day predicted risk of mortality score: 14% 8%) were treated with ViV-TAVI, between 2007 and 2014. All had severe aortic regurgitation and were highly symptomatic before TAVI: 41% had chronic kidney disease; 32% had undergone previous coronary bypass grafts; 27% had previous percutaneous coronary intervention; 14% had severe pulmonary disease; 14% had had a stroke. All underwent TAVI with a self-expanding device.The 30-day mortality was 0%. No cases occurred of myocardial infarction, tamponade, stroke, severe bleeding, acute kidney injury, or major vascular complications. Three instances of device migration, and 1 of device embolization, occurred. Permanent pacing was required in 14%. Paravalvular aortic regurgitation was absent or mild in 19, and mild to moderate in 3. Average hospital stay was 8 3 days; all patients were discharged home. Six-month and 1-year mortality was 4.8% and 14.3%, respectively. Aortic valve area and paravalvular aortic regurgitation were unchanged at 1 year.The ViV-TAVI procedure may be performed in high-risk patients with a degenerate stentless bioprosthesis with low 30-day mortality, and 1-year mortality of 14.3%. Although technically challenging, owing to a lack of anatomic markers, satisfactory positioning is possible in most cases, with excellent clinical and echocardiographic outcomes.

Loading The Royal Brompton Hospital collaborators
Loading The Royal Brompton Hospital collaborators