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Mansur A.,University Hospital Freiburg | Klee Y.,University Hospital Freiburg | Popov A.F.,Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital | Erlenwein J.,University Hospital Freiburg | And 4 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2015

Objective: To investigate whether common infection foci (pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia) are associated with variations in mortality risk in patients with sepsis. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Three surgical intensive care units (ICUs) at a university medical centre. Participants: A total of 327 adult Caucasian patients with sepsis originating from pulmonary, intra-abdominal and primary bacteraemia participated in this study. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The patients were followed for 90 days and mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome variable. To monitor organ failure, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SOFA) scores were evaluated at the onset of sepsis and throughout the observational period as secondary outcome variables. Results: A total of 327 critically ill patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 90-day mortality risk was significantly higher among patients with primary bacteraemia than among those with pulmonary and intra-abdominal foci (58%, 35% and 32%, respectively; p=0.0208). To exclude the effects of several baseline variables, we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis. Primary bacteraemia remained a significant covariate for mortality in the multivariate analysis (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.86; p=0.0166). During their stay in the ICU, the patients with primary bacteraemia presented significantly higher SOFA scores than those of the patients with pulmonary and intra-abdominal infection foci (8.5±4.7, 7.3±3.4 and 5.8±3.5, respectively). Patients with primary bacteraemia presented higher SOFA-renal score compared with the patients with other infection foci (1.6±1.4, 0.8±1.1 and 0.7±1.0, respectively); the patients with primary bacteraemia required significantly more renal replacement therapy than the patients in the other groups (29%, 11% and 12%, respectively). Conclusions: These results indicate that patients with sepsis with primary bacteraemia present a higher mortality risk compared with patients with sepsis of pulmonary or intra-abdominal origins. These results should be assessed in patients with sepsis in larger, independent cohorts. Source


Kouranos V.,Interstitial Lung Disease Unit | Wells A.U.,Interstitial Lung Disease Unit | Sharma R.,Royal Brompton Hospital | Underwood S.R.,Imperial College London | Wechalekar K.,Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital
British Medical Bulletin | Year: 2015

Introduction Radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis has advanced significantly in recent years. Sources of data This article is based on published clinical guidelines, literature review and our collective clinical experience. Areas of agreement Gallium-67 scintigraphy is among the diagnostic criteria for cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis, and it is strongly associated with response to treatment. However, fluorine-18, 2-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is now preferred both for diagnosis and for assessing prognosis. Areas of controversy Most data are from small observational studies that are potentially biased. Growing points Quantitative imaging to assess changes in disease activity in response to treatment may lead to FDG-PET having an important routine role in managing cardiac sarcoidosis. Areas timely for developing research Larger prospective studies are required, particularly to assess the effectiveness of radionuclide imaging in improving clinical management and outcome. © 2015 The Author 2015. Source


Mohsen T.A.,Cairo University | Zeid A.A.A.,Cairo University | Meshref M.,Cairo University | Tawfeek N.,Cairo University | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2011

Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and outcome of thoracoscopic talc poudrage (TTP) versus povidone-iodine pleurodesis (PIP) through a thoracostomy tube as a palliative treatment of pleural effusion due to metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC). Methods: A total of 42 MBC patients were prospectively enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two patients received TTP (group A), whereas 20 patients (group B) underwent pleurodesis by instilling povidone-iodine through a thoracostomy tube, as a bedside procedure. Results: The mean age was 48.2 ± 9.9 (range: 29-64) years and 50.2 ± 7 (range: 32-62) years for groups A and B, respectively (p= ns). At presentation, all patients had moderate to severe dyspnea, New York Heart Association (NYHA) > II and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale 3-5. Morbidity in both groups was low. Post-procedure analgesic requirements due to severe pleuritic chest pain were higher in group A (18% vs 0%, p= 0.2). Four patients in group A (18%) and one in group B (5%) were febrile (>38 °C) within 48. h of the procedure. Both groups achieved good symptom control, with improvement in MRC dyspnea scale (1-3). There were no in-hospital deaths. Post-procedure hospital stay was lower in group B (p= 0.009). The mean progression-free interval was 6.6 (range 3-15) months. At follow-up (mean: 22.6 (range: 8-48) months), recurrence of significant pleural effusion requiring intervention was noted in two and three patients in group A and group B, respectively (p= ns). Conclusion: Povidone-iodine can be considered as a good alternative to TTP to ensure effective pleurodesis for patients with malignant pleural effusion due to MBC. The drug is available, cost effective and safe, can be given through a thoracostomy tube and can be repeated if necessary. © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Source


Ludman P.F.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Moat N.,Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital | De Belder M.A.,James Cook University | Blackman D.J.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals | And 14 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2015

Background - We assessed trends in the performance of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in the United Kingdom from the first case in 2007 to the end of 2012. We analyzed changes in case mix, complications, outcomes to 6 years, and predictors of mortality. Methods and Results - Annual cohorts were examined. Mortality outcomes were analyzed in the 92% of patients from England and Wales for whom independent mortality tracking was available. A total of 3980 transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures were performed. In successive years, there was an increase in frequency of impaired left ventricular function, but there was no change in Logistic EuroSCORE. Overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%; it was highest in the first cohort (2007-2008), after which there were no further significant changes. One-year survival was 81.7%, falling to 37.3% at 6 years. Discharge by day 5 rose from 16.7% in 2007 and 2008 to 28% in 2012. The only multivariate preprocedural predictor of 30-day mortality was Logistic EuroSCORE ≥40. During long-term follow-up, multivariate predictors of mortality were preprocedural atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, creatinine >200 μmol/L, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. The strongest independent procedural predictor of long-term mortality was periprocedural stroke (hazard ratio=3.00; P<0.0001). Nonfemoral access and postprocedural aortic regurgitation were also significant predictors of adverse outcome. Conclusions - We analyzed transcatheter aortic valve implantation in an entire country, with follow-up over 6 years. Although clinical profiles of enrolled patients remained unchanged, longer-term outcomes improved, and patients were discharged earlier. Periprocedural stroke, nonfemoral access, and postprocedural aortic regurgitation are predictors of adverse outcome, along with intrinsic patient risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Gardiner H.M.,Imperial College London | Gardiner H.M.,University of Houston | Kovacevic A.,Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital | Kovacevic A.,Imperial College London | And 8 more authors.
Heart | Year: 2014

Objective Determine maternity hospital and lesionspecific prenatal detection rates of major congenital heart disease (mCHD) for hospitals referring prenatally and postnatally to one Congenital Cardiac Centre, and assess interhospital relative performance (relative risk, RR). Methods We manually linked maternity data (3 hospitals prospectively and another 16 retrospectively) with admissions, fetal diagnostic and surgical cardiac data from one Congenital Cardiac Centre. This Centre submits verified information to National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR-Congenital), which publishes aggregate antenatal diagnosis data from infant surgical procedures. We included 120 198 unselected women screened prospectively over 11 years in 3 maternity hospitals (A, B, C). Hospital A: colocated with fetal medicine, proactive superintendent, on-site training, case-review and audit, hospital B: on-site training, proactive superintendent, monthly telemedicine clinics, and hospital C: sonographers supported by local obstetrician. We then studied 321 infants undergoing surgery for complete transposition (transposition of the great arteries (TGA), n=157) and isolated aortic coarctation (CoA, n=164) screened in hospitals A, B, C prospectively, and 16 hospitals retrospectively. Results 385 mCHD recorded prospectively from 120 198 (3.2/1000) screened women in 3 hospitals. Interhospital relative performance (RR) in Hospital A:1.68 (1.4 to 2.0), B:0.70 (0.54 to 0.91), C:0.65 (0.5 to 0.8). Standardised prenatal detection rates (funnel plots) demonstrating inter-hospital variation across 19 hospitals for TGA (37%, 0.00 to 0.81) and CoA (34%, 0.00 to 1.06). Conclusions Manually linking data sources produced hospital-specific and lesion-specific prenatal mCHD detection rates. More granular, rather than aggregate, data provides meaningful feedback to improve screening performance. Automatic maternal and infant record linkage on a national scale, requires verified, prospective maternity audit and integration of health information systems. Source

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