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Ishii T.,Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital Research Foundation | Ishii T.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Ishii T.,Okayama University | Notohara K.,Kurashiki Central Hospital | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2011

Advanced colorectal polyps are identified based on size ≥10 mm, high-grade dysplasia, and/or villous histology. A diagnosis of tubular adenoma (TA) is recommended if villous change occupies <20% of the lesion, or tubulovillous adenoma (TVA) is recommended if there is 20% to 80% villosity. We hypothesized that even subtle villous changes (1% to 20%) would correlate with advanced molecular features. Two hundred sixty-nine colorectal adenomas were examined for KRAS and BRAF mutation and immunohistochemical staining of β-catenin, O6-Methyl Guanine DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT), and p53. Adenomas were classified as TA1 (0% villosity, n=70), TA2 (1% to 20% villosity, n=81), or TVA (21% to 80% villosity, n=118). Clinical and molecular features were analyzed by univariate χ and multivariate logistic regression. There was an incremental increase in KRAS mutation frequency with increasing villous compartment (17.9% TA1, 59.0% TA2, 78.4% TVA; P<0.001). MGMT was more frequently lost in TA2 (37.0%) than in TA1 (8.6%) (P<0.001) but did not differ from TVA (39.8%). p53 overexpression was more common in TA2 (38.3%) than in TA1 (10.0%) (P<0.001) but did not differ from TVA (32.2%). On multivariate analysis, TA2 adenomas were more likely to have a KRAS mutation [odds ratio (OR) 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0-14.2], MGMT loss (OR 6.2, 95% CI, 2.4-16.0), or p53 overexpression (OR 5.6, 95% CI, 2.3-13.7) than TA1. We have identified a subgroup of TAs based on subtle villous changes. These adenomas are more likely to show molecular features that are characteristic of TVAs than TAs. These data support the concept that any villous change may indicate increased malignant potential and may be useful to consider when assigning surveillance guidelines. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Worthley D.L.,Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital Research Foundation | Worthley D.L.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Whitehall V.L.J.,Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital Research Foundation | Whitehall V.L.J.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | And 16 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: DNA methylation varies throughout the normal colorectal mucosa and DNA methylation in normal appearing mucosa is associated with serrated and adenomatous neoplasia elsewhere within the colorectum. Aims: The purpose of this study was to measure luminal chemistry, rectal proliferation and mucosal DNA methylation and thus determine whether regional and pathological patterns of DNA methylation could be explained by luminal and epithelial factors. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects had normal rectal mucosal biopsies and a 24-h fecal collection. Rectal biopsies were analyzed for epithelial proliferation (Ki67 immunohistochemistry) and DNA methylation at 17 different markers, including "type A" markers (ESR1, GATA5, HIC1, HPP1, SFRP1), "type C" markers (MGMT, MLH1, CDKN2A, MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, IGF2, CACNA1G, NEUROG1, SOCS1, RUNX3), and LINE-1. Fecal analysis included short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), pH and ammonia. Mean "type A" and CIMP panel methylation Z-scores were calculated. Results: Rectal proliferation was significantly correlated with methylation at ESR1 (ρ = 0.81, P = 0.003) and GATA5 (ρ = 0.78, P = 0.012). LINE-1 methylation was 71.7 vs. 74.1%, in patients with "low" and "high" fecal total SCFA concentration (defined by the median value), respectively (P = 0.0019). On multivariate linear regression "type A" methylation was independently associated with rectal proliferation (P = 0.001). LINE-1 methylation was directly associated with rectal proliferation (P = 0.038) and total fecal SCFA concentration (P = 0.002), and inversely associated with fecal NH3 concentrations (P = 0.003). Conclusions: DNA methylation in normal rectal mucosa is associated with crypt proliferation and fecal SCFA concentration. These associations may help to explain regional differences in DNA methylation as well as providing a possible link between the colorectal lumen and carcinogenesis. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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