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Pringle J.S.,Royal Botanical Gardens
Novon | Year: 2016

The new species Gentiana woodii J. S. Pringle, from Departments Cochabamba and La Paz, Bolivia, and Gentianella glenniae J. S. Pringle, from Departments Amazonas and Cajamarca, Peru, are described. Gentiana woodii differs from G. sedifolia Kunth and G. sirensis J. S. Pringle in its conspicuously white-margined leaves, which are more widely spaced distally, and from G. microphylla Griseb. in its monocarpic habit and narrower leaves. Gentianella glenniae differs from G. ericothamna (Gilg) Zarucchi in its more elongated inflorescences, triangular rather than linear calyx lobes, and more deeply lobed corollas, and from G. oreosilene (Gilg) J. S. Pringle in its smaller flowers, more deeply lobed corollas, and narrowly lanceolate rather than obovate corolla lobes. Source


Botanic gardens and arboreta are thought of as institutions where collections of plants are displayed and labeled with authoritative plant nomenclature and taxonomy. To improve understanding of the practices used by North American public gardens in labelling cultivated plants in horticultural collections, a survey comprised of 30 questions was developed and distributed to members of the American Public Gardens Association's Plant Nomenclature and Taxonomy Professional Section using a web-based survey tool. Questions included who held responsibility for verifying plant names; how important it was to maintain up-to-date names for plant collections; how frequently and under what circumstances plant names were reviewed and updated; the type of nomenclatural or taxonomic information (scientific names, common names, plant families, trade designations and/or trademarks, etc.) used to label plants, and the methods, systems, protocols, and preferred references used to update plant names. Eighty-five individuals responded, representing 78 institutions maintaining collections of documented and labeled plants. Curatorial staff were found to be responsible for nomenclature decisions and practices, and taxonomists were only rarely consulted. On plant labels, it was found that all responding gardens used scientific names, most (93%) used common names, and 60% were found to include other designations such as trademarks (where applicable) as part of their plant names. The way that trademarks were used on labels widely differed among gardens. The most popular references and on-line resources used to verify plant nomenclature and taxonomy included published floras, Royal Horticultural Society's Plant Finder, International Plant Names Index, and Germplasm Research Information Network. Guidance on the use of trade designations and trademarks, and improved access to digital or web-based information on the names and taxonomy of cultivated plants were identified as being most important to facilitate best practices in cultivated plant names for North American Gardens. Source


Pringle J.S.,Royal Botanical Gardens
Annales Botanici Fennici | Year: 2014

Two new species of Gentianella are described. Gentianella galtonioides J.S. Pringle, from Peru, differs from G. kusnezowii in its leaves with 11 to 17 primary veins and non-sheathing bases, and in its white corollas with elliptic-rhombic lobes. Gentianella pharos J.S. Pringle, from Bolivia, differs from G. florida in its more elongate inflorescences and distinctly yellow corollas, from G. pluvialis in its smaller flowers and less deeply lobed corollas, and from both in its smaller size and deltoid calyx lobes the distinctness of Gentiana longipes and G. totorensis is discussed, and the species are transferred to Gentianella. Gynodioecy is confirmed in Gentianella pluvialis with the report of specimens with bisexual flowers. © 2014 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board. Source


Cadwallader L.,University of Cambridge | Beresford-Jones D.G.,University of Cambridge | Whaley O.Q.,Royal Botanical Gardens | O'Connell T.C.,University of Cambridge
Human Ecology | Year: 2012

Palaeodietary isotope studies have long assumed C 4 signals in South American archaeological populations to be due to the consumption of maize (Zea mays), which in turn, underlie interpretations important social processes. We presents δ 13C data from wild plants (n = 89) from the south coast of Peru, which may have been significant in the diets of humans and animals in the past. A combination of these with previously published results from domesticates of the Andean region (n = 144) brings the proportion of C 4 species likely to have contributed to the human dietary isotopic signal, whether directly or indirectly, to almost one third. This undermines the widespread assumption that maize is the only plant to contribute a C 4 signal to diets. By considering both direct and indirect routes whereby C 4 plants may have contributed to the human isotopic signal we show the need for a reassessment of how palaeodietary studies are interpreted in the Andes, and perhaps elsewhere in the Americas. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Pringle J.S.,Royal Botanical Gardens
Novon | Year: 2012

Gentianella undulatisepala J. S. Pringle, a new species from Bolivia, is described for the Gentianaceae. It is distinguished from other solitary-flowered species in La Paz Department by its long pedicels and the undulate margins of its calyx lobes. Gentianella arenarioides (Gilg) J. S. Pringle is restored to accepted taxonomic status, with the name neotypified, and the new nomenclatural combination is published. Source

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