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Richmond, United Kingdom

Traditional wood identification techniques using light microscopy are usually sufficient to identify a wood sample to the genus level. In some cases CITES legislation requires identification to species level, which is difficult or impossible using traditional light microscopy. This paper concentrates mainly on the identification challenges posed by CITES, particularly with ramin {Gonystylus spp.), Brazilian Rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) and Agarwood (Aquilaria and Gyrinops species). All the other CITES listed timbers and some other taxa that are traded or confused with protected species and might in the future be protected by legislation are also discussed. There are several new non-anatomical techniques being tried to make more accurate identifications and these are mentioned where appropriate. There is a mismatch between legislation and the natural world, and the limitations of the identification process need to be better appreciated by enquirers, especially in relation to CITES enquiries, since species and genus concepts vary among biologists, and can be ambiguous. Source

Davis A.P.,Royal Botanic Gardens
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Evidence from several sources shows that Psilanthus is a synonym of Coffea. In order to finalize the taxonomic placement of Psilanthus within Coffea a new combination is necessary for the type species of Psilanthus, P. mannii. The combination Coffea mannii is made here. The implications of the transfer of Psilanthus to Coffea are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Source

Bacon C.D.,Colorado State University | Baker W.J.,Royal Botanic Gardens | Simmons M.P.,Colorado State University
Systematic Biology | Year: 2012

The study of three island groups of the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae/Palmae) permits both the analysis of each independent radiation and comparisons across the tribe to address general processes that drive island diversification. Phylogenetic relationships of Trachycarpeae were inferred from three plastid and three low-copy nuclear genes. The incongruent topological position of Brahea in CISP5 was hypothesized to be caused by a gene duplication event and was addressed using uninode coding. The resulting phylogenetic trees were well-resolved and the genera were all highly supported except for Johannesteijsmannia and Serenoa. Divergence time analysis estimated the stem of the tribe to be approximately 86 Ma and the crown to be 38 Ma, indicating that significant extinction may have occurred along this branch. Historical biogeographic analysis suggested that Trachycarpeae are of southern North American, Central American, or Caribbean origin and supports previous hypotheses of a Laurasian origin. The biogeography and disjunctions within the tribe were interpreted with respect to divergence times, the fossil record, and geological factors such as the formation of the Greater Antilles-Aves Ridge, the Bering and the North Atlantic land bridges, tectonic movement in Southeast Asia, climatic shifts between the Eocene and Pliocene, and volcanism in the Pacific basin. In considering the three major island radiations within Trachycarpeae, Miocene dispersal appears to have been the driving force in allopatric speciation and is highlighted here as an emerging pattern across the tree of life. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Baker W.J.,Royal Botanic Gardens
Phytotaxa | Year: 2015

All available phylogenetic evidence indicates that the rattan genus Calamus, the largest of all palm (Arecaceae) genera, is non-monophyletic and that the four remaining genera of subtribe Calaminae (Calameae: Calamoideae), Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Pogonotium and Retispatha, are nested within it. This issue has not yet been adequately addressed in palm classifications, with recent authors preferring to wait for further phylogenetic evidence before revising the limits of the genera. Here, an alternative solution is proposed that is both pragmatic and phylogenetically robust. An expanded Calamus is recognised into which Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Pogonotium and Retispatha are subsumed. This broad generic concept, which includes ca. 520 species, has practical advantages as it is more clearly defined by morphological and anatomical characters, and resolves potential biases introduced to recent eco-evolutionary research on palms by the non-monophyly of critical genera. Future phylogenetic research may yet provide an alternative means of delimiting these genera, but the broad sense Calamus proposed here is a justifiable alternative that can be adopted immediately. Nomenclatural synopses transferring currently accepted species of Ceratolobus, Daemonorops and Pogonotium to Calamus are provided, including 70 new combinations and 12 replacement names. © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

Harley R.M.,Royal Botanic Gardens | Harley R.M.,State University of Feira de Santana | Pastore J.F.B.,State University of Feira de Santana
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

An earlier molecular study demonstrated the monophyly of the Hyptidinae and most of the genera within it. However, the largest genus, Hyptis, is paraphyletic and all other genera seem to be derived from a Hyptis ancestor. Most of the different lineages which comprise Hyptis are already established sections, some of which are now raised to generic rank, augmenting the subtribe to 19 genera and with a greatly reduced but monophyletic Hyptis, in which the genus Peltodon is included as a section. The sections Mesosphaeria and Polydesmia are also shown not to be monophyletic, making it necessary to reassign some species from the former to the latter, and then raising the two sections to generic rank as Mesosphaerum and Cantinoa respectively, the latter a new genus name. A new genus Oocephalus is also created from two former subsections of Hyptis sect. Polydesmia. The genus Condea, formed from three former sections of Hyptis, is itself divided into two sections. A key to all recognized genera is included, together with a generic conspectus, with brief distributional data, differentiating the new genera and listing their component species. The necessary nomenclatural changes comprise 142 new combinations, 30 new or replacement lectotypifications, four neotypes, 23 new synonymies, eight stat. nov., six newly coined generic names, five new epitypes and four new names. © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

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