Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne

South Yarra, Australia

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne

South Yarra, Australia

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Tedersoo L.,University of Tartu | May T.W.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne | Smith M.E.,Harvard University
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2010

The ectomycorrhizal (EcM) symbiosis involves a large number of plant and fungal taxa worldwide. During studies on EcM diversity, numerous misidentifications, and contradictory reports on EcM status have been published. This review aims to: (1) critically assess the current knowledge of the fungi involved in the EcM by integrating data from axenic synthesis trials, anatomical, molecular, and isotope studies; (2) group these taxa into monophyletic lineages based on molecular sequence data and published phylogenies; (3) investigate the trophic status of sister taxa to EcM lineages; (4) highlight other potentially EcM taxa that lack both information on EcM status and DNA sequence data; (5) recover the main distribution patterns of the EcM fungal lineages in the world. Based on critically examining original reports, EcM lifestyle is proven in 162 fungal genera that are supplemented by two genera based on isotopic evidence and 52 genera based on phylogenetic data. Additionally, 33 genera are highlighted as potentially EcM based on habitat, although their EcM records and DNA sequence data are lacking. Molecular phylogenetic and identification studies suggest that EcM symbiosis has arisen independently and persisted at least 66 times in fungi, in the Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Zygomycota. The orders Pezizales, Agaricales, Helotiales, Boletales, and Cantharellales include the largest number of EcM fungal lineages. Regular updates of the EcM lineages and genera therein can be found at the UNITE homepage http://unite. ut. ee/EcM_lineages. The vast majority of EcM fungi evolved from humus and wood saprotrophic ancestors without any obvious reversals. Herbarium records from 11 major biogeographic regions revealed three main patterns in distribution of EcM lineages: (1) Austral; (2) Panglobal; (3) Holarctic (with or without some reports from the Austral or tropical realms). The holarctic regions host the largest number of EcM lineages; none are restricted to a tropical distribution with Dipterocarpaceae and Caesalpiniaceae hosts. We caution that EcM-dominated habitats and hosts in South America, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Australia remain undersampled relative to the north temperate regions. In conclusion, EcM fungi are phylogenetically highly diverse, and molecular surveys particularly in tropical and south temperate habitats are likely to supplement to the present figures. Due to great risk of contamination, future reports on EcM status of previously unstudied taxa should integrate molecular identification tools with axenic synthesis experiments, detailed morphological descriptions, and/or stable isotope investigations. We believe that the introduced lineage concept facilitates design of biogeographical studies and improves our understanding about phylogenetic structure of EcM fungal communities. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


McMullan-Fisher S.J.M.,University of Tasmania | Kirkpatrick J.B.,University of Tasmania | May T.W.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne | Pharo E.J.,University of Tasmania
Conservation Biology | Year: 2010

Our knowledge of cryptogam taxonomy and species distributions is currently too poor to directly plan for their conservation. We used inventory data from four distinct vegetation types, near Hobart Tasmania, to address the proposition that vegetation type, vascular plant taxon composition, and environmental variables can act as surrogates for mosses and macrofungi in reservation planning. The four vegetation types proved distinct in their taxon composition for all macrofungi, mosses, and vascular plants. We tested the strength of the relationships between the composition of cryptogam taxonomic groups and vascular plant composition and between the environmental variables and canopy cover. Taxon composition of woody vascular plants and vascular plants was the best predictor of the taxon composition of mosses and macrofungi. Combinations of environmental variables and canopy cover were also strong predictors of the taxon composition of mosses and macrofungi. We used an optimization routine for vascular plant taxa and woody plant species and determined the representation of cryptogam taxa in these selections. We identified sites with approximately 10% and 30% of the greatest proportions of vascular plants and woody vascular plants and calculated representation of mosses and macrofungi at these sites. We compared the results of these site selections with random site selections and random selections stratified by vegetation type. Random selection of sites by vegetation type generally captured more cryptogams than site selection by vascular plants at the 10% level. Vascular plant and woody plant taxon composition, vegetation type, and environmental and structural characteristics, all showed promise as surrogates for capturing common cryptogams in reserve systems. © 2009 Society for Conservation Biology.


James E.A.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne | James E.A.,University of Melbourne | McDougall K.L.,NSW Office of Environment and Heritage | McDougall K.L.,La Trobe University
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and Aims The association of clonality, polyploidy and reduced fecundity has been identified as an extinction risk for clonal plants. Compromised sexual reproduction limits both their ability to adapt to new conditions and their capacity to disperse to more favourable environments. Grevillea renwickiana is a prostrate, putatively sterile shrub reliant on asexual reproduction. Dispersal is most likely limited by the rate of clonal expansion via rhizomes. The nine localized populations constituting this species provide an opportunity to examine the extent of clonality and spatial genotypic diversity to evaluate its evolutionary prospects. Methods Ten microsatellite loci were used to compare genetic and genotypic diversity across all sites with more intensive sampling at four locations (n = 185). The spatial distribution of genotypes and chloroplast DNA haplotypes based on the trnQ-rps16 intergenic spacer region were compared. Chromosome counts provided a basis for examining genetic profiles inconsistent with diploidy. Key Results Microsatellite analysis identified 46 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) in eight multilocus clonal lineages (MLLs). MLLs are not shared among sites, with two exceptions. Spatial autocorrelation was significant to 1·6 km. Genotypic richness ranged from 0 to 0·33. Somatic mutation is likely to contribute to minor variation between MLGs within clonal lineages. The eight chloroplast haplotypes identified were correlated with eight MLLs defined by ordination and generally restricted to single populations. Triploidy is the most likely reason for tri-allelic patterns. Conclusions Grevillea renwickiana comprises few genetic individuals. Sterility has most likely been induced by triploidy. Extensive lateral suckering in long-lived sterile clones facilitates the accumulation of somatic mutations, which contribute to the measured genetic diversity. Genetic conservation value may not be a function of population size. Despite facing evolutionary stagnation, sterile clonal species can play a vital role in mitigating ecological instability as floras respond to rapid environmental change. © 2014 The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Jeanes J.A.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne
Muelleria | Year: 2011

The seven currently known taxa in the Thelymitra aristata Lindl. complex are reviewed and descriptions are presented for each. Thelymitra adorata Jeanes and Thelymitra kangaloonica Jeanes from eastern New South Wales are described as new and illustrated. The key diagnostic features relating to the size and colour of the perianth, the shape of the post-anther lobe of the column, the presence or absence of auxiliary lobes, the density of the hairs on the lateral lobes and the placement of the anther are elucidated. Information on distribution, habitat, pollination biology, flowering time and conservation status is given for all seven taxa.The main distinguishing features of Thelymitra aristata, Thelymitra epipactoides F.Muell., Thelymitra grandiflora Fitzg., Thelymitra planicola Jeanes, Thelymitra silena D.L Jones and the two new species are tabulated. A key is provided to distinguish all seven members of the T. aristata complex.


Maroske S.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne
Muelleria | Year: 2014

In 1884, Ferdinand Mueller, Government Botanist of Victoria, told his collector Mary Bate that she was 'one of the very few' women in Australia interested in botany in contrast to the situation in Europe and North America. This proposition is assessed using Maroske and Vaughan's biographical register (2014), which identifies 225 of Mueller's female collectors, and outlines their contribution to Australian botany. An analysis of this register reveals that Mueller achieved a scale and level of engagement between Australian women and botany far in excess of the benchmark he described to Mary Bate. This is an achievement that has not been acknowledged in the history of Australian botany.


Jeanes J.A.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne
Muelleria | Year: 2014

Herbarium specimens of species of Podolepis s. str. with ray florets longer than the capitula and a discrete intermediate involucral bract claw were examined. Particular attention was paid to specimens previously determined as P. jaceoides (Sims) Voss, P. canescens A.Cunn. ex DC. and P. rugata Labill. As a result, four species and two subspecies are described as new: P. decipiens Jeanes, P. eremaea Jeanes, P. linearifolia Jeanes, P. remota Jeanes, P. rugata subsp. glabrata Jeanes and P. rugata subsp. trullata Jeanes. To accommodate the observed variation, two species, P. aristata Benth. and P. laevigata Gand., are reinstated and the following new combinations made: Podolepis aristata subsp. offinis (Sond.) Jeanes, P. aristata subsp. auriculata (DC.) Jeanes, and P. rugata subsp. litoralis (G.L.Davis) Jeanes. The diagnostic characters of the relevant taxa are tabulated. Keys, distribution maps and information about cytology (where available), habitat and conservation status are presented. © Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne 2014.


Stefani F.O.P.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne | Stefani F.O.P.,University of Montréal | Jones R.H.,University of Melbourne | May T.W.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

This study aims to delimit species of Australian dermocyboid fungi (Cortinarius, Agaricales) using genealogical concordance on well-characterised phenotypic species and to assess the utility of seven loci for DNA barcoding Australian Cortinarius taxa. Eighty-six collections of dermocyboid Cortinarius were sampled from across southern Australia. Phenotypic species were first recognised by performing clustering analyses on a comprehensive phenotypic dataset including morphological, colour and pigment data. Then phylogenetic species were delimited from the concordance of seven locus genealogies (ITS, nLSU, gpd, mcm7, rpb1, rpb2 and tef1). Seventeen phenotypic species were recognised while the concordance of gene genealogies recovered 35 phylogenetic species. All loci except for LSU recovered most phylogenetic species, although only rpb1 correctly identified all phylogenetic species. The ITS region is confirmed as an effective barcode for Cortinarius and a standard pairwise distance threshold of 2.0% is proposed to DNA barcode Australian Cortinarius taxa. Australian dermocyboid fungi belong in separate clades to the boreal clade Dermocybe, mostly in the clade Splendidi. This study provides a solid foundation for future ecological, taxonomic and systematic research on one of the most diverse genera of mushrooms worldwide. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Sheedy E.M.,University of Melbourne | Van de Wouw A.P.,University of Melbourne | Howlett B.J.,University of Melbourne | May T.W.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne
Mycologia | Year: 2013

Laccaria (Hydnangiaceae, Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is one of the more intensively studied ectomycorrhizal genera; however, species boundaries within Laccaria and the closely related Hydnangium and Podohydnangium in Australia have not yet been examined with molecular sequence data. Based on morphological characters, eight native species of Laccaria are currently recognized in Australia, as well as three Hydnangium species and the monotypic Podohydnangium australe. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA (ITS), RNA polymerase beta subunit II (rpb2) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef-1α) were generated from 77 collections of Laccaria, Hydnangium and Podohydnangium from Australia. Ten phylogenetic species and a further 11 potential species (represented by singletons) of Laccaria in Australia are delimited from sequence analyses. Most of the morphological species contained cryptic phylogenetic species, but these species were always nested entirely within a given morphological species, although not always as sister taxa. The rpb2 locus performed best as a species barcode with pairwise and patristic distance measures. The ITS sequence region returned the least resolved gene tree of the three regions examined and was the least useful as a barcode region. Based on the phylogenetic topology, there appears to have been multiple gains and/or losses of the ectomycorrhizal association of some species with the myrtle beech, Nothofagus cunninghamii as well as of sequestrate basidiocarps and two-spored basidia. © 2013 by The Mycological Society of America.


The Thelymitra nuda J.R.Forst. & G.Forst, complex is defined as a group and an overview of the Australian members is presented. Six new species, T. alcockiae D.L Jones ex Jeanes, T. alpina Jeanes, T. glaucophylla R.J. Bates ex Jeanes, T. paludosa Jeanes, T. petrophila Jeanes and T. queenslandica Jeanes, are described and illustrated. The key diagnostic characters are discussed where relevant. Information on distribution, habitat, flowering time, pollination biology and conservation status is given for all taxa. A dichotomous key is provided.


Casanova M.T.,Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne | Casanova M.T.,University of Ballarat
Australian Systematic Botany | Year: 2013

Taxonomic circumscriptions of the charophyte taxa Chara fibrosa C.Agardh ex Bruzelius. and C. flaccida var. wightii A.Braun are revised, and both taxa are recognised at species rank, as C. fibrosa and C. wightii (A.Braun) Casanova. Both species are illustrated and a review of relevant morphological characters is also presented. © CSIRO 2013.

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