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Geiser D.M.,Pennsylvania State University | Aoki T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Bacon C.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Baker S.E.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 62 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2013

In this letter, we advocate recognizing the genus Fusarium as the sole name for a group that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This phylogenetically guided circumscription will free scientists from any obligation to use other genus names, including teleomorphs, for species nested within this clade, and preserve the application of the name Fusarium in the way it has been used for almost a century. Due to recent changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this is an urgent matter that requires community attention. The alternative is to break the longstanding concept of Fusarium into nine or more genera, and remove important taxa such as those in the F. solani species complex from the genus, a move we believe is unnecessary. Here we present taxonomic and nomenclatural proposals that will preserve established research connections and facilitate communication within and between research communities, and at the same time support strong scientific principles and good taxonomic practice. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.

Pham K.K.,Morton Arboretum | Pham K.K.,Michigan State University | Hahn M.,Morton Arboretum | Lueders K.,Morton Arboretum | And 31 more authors.
Systematic Botany | Year: 2016

Major public DNA databases-NCBI GenBank, the DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ), and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)-are invaluable biodiversity libraries. Systematists and other biodiversity scientists commonly mine these databases for sequence data to use in phylogenetic studies, but such studies generally use only the taxonomic identity of the sequenced tissue, not the specimen identity. Thus studies that use DNA supermatrices to construct phylogenetic trees with species at the tips typically do not take advantage of the fact that for many individuals in the public DNA databases, several DNA regions have been sampled; and for many species, two or more individuals have been sampled. Thus these studies typically do not make full use of the multigene datasets in public DNA databases to test species coherence and select optimal sequences to represent a species. In this study, we introduce a set of tools developed in the R programming language to construct individual-based trees from NCBI GenBank data and present a set of trees for the genus Carex (Cyperaceae) constructed using these methods. For the more than 770 species for which we found sequence data, our approach recovered an average of 1.85 gene regions per specimen, up to seven for some specimens, and more than 450 species represented by two or more specimens. Depending on the subset of genes analyzed, we found up to 42% of species monophyletic. We introduce a simple tree statistic-the Taxonomic Disparity Index (TDI)-to assist in curating specimen-level datasets and provide code for selecting maximally informative (or, conversely, minimally misleading) sequences as species exemplars. While tailored to the Carex dataset, the approach and code presented in this paper can readily be generalized to constructing individual-level trees from large amounts of data for any species group. © 2016 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists.

Tarran M.,University of Adelaide | Wilson P.G.,Royal Botanic Garden Sydney | Hill R.S.,University of Adelaide
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Myrtaceous fossil capsular fruits and flowers from the northwest of Tasmania, in the Early Oligocene-aged Little Rapid River (LRR) deposit, are described. The reproductive organs are found in association with Myrtaceous leaves previously thought to belong to a fleshy-fruited genus, Xanthomyrtus at both LRR, and an Eocene Tasmanian site at Hasties, which are reassessed with fresh morphological evidence. METHODS: Standard Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate cuticular characters and an auto-montage camera system was used to take high-resolution images of fossil and extant fruits. Fossils are identified using a nearest living relative (NLR) approach. KEY RESULTS: The fossil fruits and flowers share a number of characters with genera of capsular-fruited Myrtaceae, in particular sharing several synapomorphies with species of Metrosideros subg. Metrosideros (tribe: Metrosidereae). The fossil is here described, and named Metrosideros leunigii, sp. nov. CONCLUSIONS: This research establishes the presence of Metrosideros (aff. subg. Metrosideros) in the Eocene-Oligocene (~40-30 mya) of Tasmania, Australia. This is the first fossil record of Metrosideros in Australia, as well as the oldest conclusive fossil record, and may provide evidence for an Australian origin of the genus. It is also yet another example of extinction in the Tertiary of a group of plants on the Australian mainland that is only found today on nearby Pacific landmasses. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

News Article | December 1, 2016

Destination NSW provides a taste of Summer with new flyover footage of Sydney's famous beaches. Click here to view. SYDNEY, Dec. 1, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- This Summer, more than 10 million overnight and day trip visitors are expected to visit Sydney to make the most of the warm weather, world famous beaches, globally recognised icons, first class dining scene and calendar of events. To view the full multimedia release, click here: Over the six month period of October - March Sydney will receive 18 million visitors, with 10 million of these expected to visit during Summer*. Last year, Summer-loving tourists stayed around 29.2 million nights during the three months of the popular, warm season. NSW Minister for Trade, Tourism and Major Events Stuart Ayres said: "Summer is an absolutely magical time to visit Sydney and make the most of the city's famous coastal lifestyle with more than 90 beaches on offer. "Last Summer, we welcomed more than 9.2 million visitors who spent more than AU$4.9 billion in Sydney, meaning tourists are taking advantage of the endless entertainment, dining and major event options after a day on the beaches. "From a day at the Test at the historic SCG to a ride on one of Sydney's iconic ferries, summer is an exciting, vibrant and beautiful time in Sydney, and we look forward to more visitors from near and far over the next few sunny months." The top activities for visitors to Sydney are eating out, shopping, sightseeing, and attending events. To help plan holidays, Destination NSW, the State Government's tourism and major events agency, has developed a list of some of the top things to see and do whilst in town this Summer. Where to eat: Waterside dining is one of Sydney's essential experiences. Visit LuMi Bar & Dining in Pyrmont for a two-hatted meal, and enjoy Turkish meze treats at Anason in Sydney's newest waterfront development, Barangaroo. Head to Paddington's newest restaurant, Fred's, and head to the Light Brigade Hotel just down the road for a rooftop beverage. When in Western Sydney, book at meal at Vela Dining & Bar along the Parramatta River, or enjoy the 180-degree river views on the deck at Port Bar. For a truly iconic experience, enjoy a sunset drink at Opera Bar, along the Sydney Opera House promenade, looking at the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Where to shop: Sydney is a hotspot for shopping that caters to lovers of high-end fashion, international labels and local, boutique designers. Visit hundreds of stores in Sydney's iconic Queen Victoria Building, The Strand, bustling Pitt Street Mall and Westfield Sydney which is full of luxury designer brands. For a boutique outdoor shopping experience, spend some time in Paddington exploring Oxford St, William St and the popular Intersection, known for its collection of Australian designers. Sightseeing musts: The world famous Sydney Opera House, Sydney Harbour Bridge, Bondi Beach and Manly are all absolute musts, especially for first-time Summer visitors. A walk around the Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Centennial Parklands and visits to Taronga Zoo, SeaLife Manly and Sydney Aquarium are also popular. Events to plan around: Sport fans, culture lovers, and history buffs are taken care of in Sydney's Summer calendar. The Coates Hire Sydney 500 car racing (2-4 December 2016), the New Year's Test at the Sydney Cricket Ground (from 3 January 2017), APIA International Sydney tennis tournament (8-14 January 2017), HSBC Sydney 7s rugby fix (3-5 February 2017) and Australian Open of Surfing (25 February - 5 March 2017) are all on offer. For celebrity spotters, the 6th AACTA Awards presented by Foxtel will see the stars of Australian film and television walk the red carpet in Sydney (7 December 2016) and is a great excuse to frock up. Egyptian Mummies: Exploring Ancient Lives will feature cutting-edge technology that reveals the secrets of mummies from the British Museum in a world premiere exclusive at the Powerhouse Museum (from 10 December 2016). Sydney Festival runs for just over three weeks (7-27 January 2017) and offers hundreds of ticketed and free events including The Beach, NUDE LIVE, and Symphony Under the Stars. Finally, New Year's Eve and Australia Day are incredibly special times to be in Sydney to enjoy the fanfare and fireworks. Visit for more information, travel package and booking information. 10 million visitors is more than double the population of New Zealand of approx. 4.5 million, and equivalent to: *Based on Tourism Research Australia data, with further modelling from Destination NSW based on annual travel trends. Data sources: Destination NSW has modelled the likely visitation figure for the Summer period of December to February with data from Tourism Research Australia, National Visitor Survey data, a combination of International Visitor Survey data, and Australian Bureau of Statistics Overseas Visitor figures and arrivals data. Summer definition: Summer data refers to the season of Summer which runs in Australia from December to February each year. Share your favorite NSW experiences with Destination NSW by tagging #ilovesydney and #NewSouthWales. For more information on experience, attractions and accommodation in Sydney and NSW, go to and Destination NSW is the lead Government agency for the New South Wales (NSW) tourism and major events sectors. Our role is to market Sydney and NSW as one of the world's premier tourism and major events destinations; to secure major sporting and cultural events; to work in partnership with Business Events Sydney to win major international conventions and incentive travel reward programs; to develop and deliver initiatives that will drive visitor growth throughout the State; to achieve the NSW Government's goal of doubling overnight visitor expenditure within the State by the year 2020. Visit for more information.

Truong N.V.,Hue University | Burgess L.W.,University of Sydney | Liew E.C.Y.,Royal Botanic Garden Sydney
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Phytophthora capsici is an economically significant pathogen of various important annual and perennial crops in temperate and tropical regions. Not much is known about the genetic diversity of this pathogen worldwide. In Vietnam it is the causal agent of devastating diseases on several hosts, including chilli and black pepper. Crossinfectivity of P. capsici isolates obtained from the two hosts was demonstrated. Analysis of forty-six P. capsici isolates based on Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS) and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP) fingerprinting revealed that isolates from black pepper were genetically distinct from isolates recovered from chilli. Twenty-two isolates from chilli clustered into two clonal groups at a DICE similarity level of >85%, whereas twenty-four isolates from black pepper were separated from these chilli isolates at a similarity level of <50%. In general the genetic diversity among isolates of P. capsici from black pepper was greater than that of the chilli isolates. The current study indicated that the P. capsici population infecting chilli and black pepper in Vietnam consists of two separate genetic strains, adapted to chilli and black pepper, despite their morphological similarity and host cross-infectivity. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2012 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

Whitten W.M.,Florida Museum of Natural History | Jacono C.C.,University of Florida | Nagalingum N.S.,Royal Botanic Garden Sydney
American Fern Journal | Year: 2012

Ferns of the genus Marsilea (water clover) are potentially invasive aquatic and wetland plants. They are difficult to identify to species because of subtle diagnostic characters, the sterile condition of many specimens, and unresolved taxonomic problems. We sequenced four plastid regions (rbcL, rps4, rps4-trnS spacer, and trnL-F spacer) from 223 accessions across ca. 38 species. Our goals were to: 1) attempt to identify problematic Marsilea specimens from the southeastern U.S., and 2) assess species delimitation using molecular data. Florida specimens previously identified as M. aff. oligospora do not match true M. oligospora (native to the western USA), and might represent an undescribed native species. The molecular data fail to resolve many species as monophyletic within the New World Marsilea section Nodorhizae. The data reveal two strongly supported clades within section Nodorhizae: 1) A western U.S./Mexican clade; and 2) A U.S. Gulf coastal plain/Florida/Caribbean clade. This DNA/morphology discordance suggests that these taxa either may have hybridized extensively or that the number of Marsilea species within these clades may be overestimated. Either case warrants the addition of nuclear data sets and reevaluation of the species boundaries within the genus. © 2012, American Fern Society.

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