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Royal Agricultural University
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Manning L.,Royal Agricultural University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

Since the 1950s food safety hazards have been categorized simply as (micro) biological, chemical or physical hazards with no clear differentiation between those that cause acute and chronic harm. Indeed international risk assessment methods, including hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) use these criteria. However, the spectrum of food related illness continues to grow now encompassing food allergy and intolerance, obesity, type 2 diabetes, stroke, heart disease, cancer as well as food poisoning, foodborne illness and food contamination. Therefore over a half-century later is this the time to redefine the spectrum of what constitutes food related illness? This paper considers whether such “redefinition” of food related intoxicating and infectious agents would provide more targeted policy instruments and lead to better risk assessment and thus mitigation of such risk within the food supply chain. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

McBride S.D.,Aberystwyth University | Roberts K.,Royal Agricultural University | Hemmings A.,Royal Agricultural University
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2017

Understanding the neural circuits underlying equine behaviour has the potential to help optimise strategies of husbandry and training. This review discusses two areas of neurophysiological research in a range of species and relates this information to the horse. The first discussion focuses on mechanisms of learning and motivation and assesses how this information can be applied to improve the training of the horse. The second concerns the identification of the equine neurophysiological phenotype, through behavioural and genetic probes, as a way of improving strategies for optimal equine husbandry and training success. The review finishes by identifying directions for future research with an emphasis on how neurophysiological systems (and thus behaviour) can be modified through strategic husbandry. This review highlights how a neurophysioloigical understanding of horse behaviour can play an important role in attaining the primary objectives of equitation science as well as improving the welfare of the horse. © 2017

Swallow K.A.,Royal Agricultural University | Goodenough A.E.,University of Gloucestershire
Community Ecology | Year: 2017

The influence of edge proximity on woodland plants is a well-established research area, yet the influence of dual edge exposure has rarely been investigated. This novel research aims to establish whether proximity to two edges has any additive influence on Ancient Woodland Indicator (AWI) species presence relative to proximity to a single edge. Several AWI species are threatened and thus specific conservation priorities, while Ancient Semi-Natural Woodland (ASNW) itself is often highly fragmented: almost half of remnant patches are less than 5 ha, which increases the potential for dual edge effects. Here, systematic mapping of herbaceous AWI species was conducted in 310 vegetation plots in two formerly-connected ASNW fragments in South-West England. Linear regression modelling revealed that distance to nearest edge and distance to second nearest edge were both univariately positively correlated with AWI species richness. After distance from nearest edge was entered into a multivariate model first, distance from second edge was entered in a second optional step after meeting stepwise criteria. The resultant multivariate model was more significant, and explained more variance, than either variable in isolation, indicating an additive effect of dual edge exposure. Likewise, binary logistic regression modelling showed presence of individual AWI species (Anemone nemorosa, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Lamiastrum galaeobdolon and Paris quadrifolia) was significantly related not only to distance from the nearest and second nearest edges in isolation, but significantly more strongly by the additive effect of distance from both edges in a single model. We discuss the implications of these findings from community ecology and conservation perspectives. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Maye D.,University of Gloucestershire | Enticott G.,University of Cardiff | Naylor R.,Royal Agricultural University
Land Use Policy | Year: 2017

Understanding of farmers’ influences relating to biosecurity is surprisingly weak, beyond general remarks that farmers tend to trust their private vet. Previous studies have explored influences in relation to single issue events. There is a need for better methodologies to fully appreciate how farmers’ biosecurity practices are shaped. Using bovine Tuberculosis as a case study, this paper uses stakeholder mapping methods applied across different scenarios. The aim is to identify how farmers’ responses to animal disease policy are shaped by their relationships with different actors. Interviews were conducted with 50 farmers in three areas in England. Farmers were presented with four scenarios to control bovine Tuberculosis: 1) a badger cull, 2) an oral badger vaccine, 3) a cattle vaccine and 4) a range of control measures. The results show that as things get more uncertain, government institutions become more influential. Government institutions and government vets are also important in situations where farmers do not consider themselves ‘experts’ i.e. vaccination as opposed to culling. The influence of other farmers was not universal; it differed between scenarios. These data show the value of scenario-based stakeholder mapping as a methodology that can enable biosecurity researchers to: more accurately and systematically determine stakeholder influence and understand how these influences change and evolve; understand the role of farmer biosecurity practices, the self-concept and ‘good farming’ and identify broader logics of biosecurity that influence and potentially frustrate animal disease policy goals. © 2017

Manning L.,Royal Agricultural University | Smith R.,Robert Gordon University
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation | Year: 2015

The 2013 horsemeat scandal and other such cases have led consumers to question their trust in extended global food supply chains. The aim of this research is to identify how small and medium-sized rural food retailers maintain food integrity with a market driver for cheaper food and the potential for food fraud. Qualitative interviews with industry insiders and analysis of data from rural food retail stores (n = 20) enabled a conceptual framework to be postulated. Adding value through Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) can deliver product differentiation, but also provides opportunities for food fraud/substitution if there is a large price differential between the niche and the standard product. Therefore value can be added to products by developing associated trust and social capital, but consumers must be safeguarded from making false assumptions on provenance or from potential food criminality and predatory, criminal entrepreneurs.

News Article | December 15, 2016

Company Welcomes Andrew Bligh as Senior Vice President, Finance & Operations and CFO; Chris Glass Joins as Sales Director CHESTER, PA and LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM--(Marketwired - Dec 15, 2016) - Optymyze, a worldwide provider of enterprise cloud applications and services for improving sales and channel performance, today announced its expanded presence. Addressing the increasing demand for its award-winning sales performance management and sales operations solutions from businesses in the U.K. and throughout the larger Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) region, Optymyze has extended its footprint in the U.K. and added key experts to its team. "Optymyze has welcomed new clients seeking to transform how they manage, engage and drive optimal performance from their sales teams while improving sales operations," said Mark Stiffler, CEO of Optymyze. "Given particularly high demand in the U.K. and EMEA, we saw fit to expand our local presence, which enables us to capitalize on new opportunities and provide additional support to our existing clients across the region." The U.K. expansion follows the company's recent expansion into the APAC region, adding sales and product leadership in Australia. Supporting this growth are two new U.K.-based executives managing company operations in the region: Andrew Bligh as senior vice president, Finance & Operations and CFO, and Chris Glass as sales director, EMEA. In leading financial operations for Optymyze, Andrew Bligh leverages his extensive experience in helping tech companies achieve global growth. He most recently served as vice president of Finance, EMEA & APAC for business intelligence and visualization software provider QlikTech, in addition to serving as an advisory board member for Implied Logic Limited. He also held the role of CFO for Xchanging, turning around the business by providing valuable guidance and implementing a new sales strategy. In addition, Bligh has held several high-level finance roles at Cisco Systems and Motorola, working in the U.K., China and Singapore. Bligh holds a Bachelor of Science degree from Durham University and is an ICAEW chartered accountant. Throughout his career, Chris Glass has been responsible for sales, business development and leadership roles in a diverse range of businesses. He previously spent over a decade at InterCall, holding various leadership positions, including senior director, Unified Communications EMEA. In this capacity, he was responsible for sales and product strategy, achieving 130 percent year-on-year growth, as well as developing the company's alliance strategy. Earlier in his career, Glass served as an e-Business consultant for Microgen, developing solutions that delivered financial and business process improvement to clients. In addition to his professional experience, Glass earned a degree from Royal Agricultural University. "Key to our success in EMEA is having the best resources in place to lead our growth," commented Stiffler. "We're pleased to welcome Andrew Bligh and Chris Glass to our global team." About Optymyze Optymyze helps companies improve sales force and sales operations performance with its award-winning enterprise technology platform and business process management services. Optymyze helps companies align sales goals and compensation; efficiently execute sales strategies; drive greater sales results, faster; and gain visibility into sales performance. With Optymyze Sales Operations as a Service, clients turn sales operations into a strategic business advantage through agility, innovation and continuous improvement.

News Article | November 22, 2016

UK universities are helping lead the world on environmental research – but when it comes to their own back yard they appear to be falling behind. Only a quarter are on track to meet their carbon reduction targets by 2020. Teams leading environmental initiatives are being cut and sustainability strategies have not been renewed, according to the results of the 2016 People & Planet University League, published on Tuesday (see below). Lack of government support for public sector sustainability is blamed for the stalling of energy-saving schemes. It is the fourth year that the league – ranking institutions by environmental and ethical performance – has recorded fewer universities on course to meet their legally binding target of reducing emissions by 43% from 2005 levels by 2020. But not all have abandoned their green goals, with “first class” status being awarded to 30 of the 150 universities. This year Nottingham Trent University, which tops the table, opened the Pavilion, its first carbon negative building. Brighton University, in second place, has made sustainability one of its four core values. The University of Warwick – the biggest mover, up from 129 last year to 34th – is launching a unique BASc cross-disciplinary degree in global sustainable development. Nottingham Trent’s high score reflects its commitment to engage staff and students, and its aim to include sustainability in all its courses, while the University of Brighton has managed to reduce its carbon footprint despite expanding in size and opening its buildings for longer hours. “Sustainability is a core value in our university,” says Prof Debra Humphris, Brighton’s vice-chancellor. “With students and staff we aim to embed sustainable practices; we all need to play our part.” A spokesman for the University of Warwick said its improved showing could be partly due to the different way statistics for the league have been collected this year. “They may have picked up more of the things we are doing this year, such as the bike hire scheme, the £5,000 fund to support student projects, and our staff and student green champions initiative,” he said. The 2016 league table, based on information in the public domain, scores institutions on such factors as the commitment of senior management, the employment of dedicated sustainability staff, divesting from investment in the fossil fuel industry and meeting public sector carbon reduction commitments. It also considers employment factors, such as paying staff the living wage, joining Electronics Watch to improve workers’ rights in that industry and investing in projects that do not exploit or pollute communities. Before 2010 and the election of the coalition and the Conservative governments, there was a flurry of carbon reduction initiatives linked to higher education funding, says People & Planet, a student campaigning network. “Sustainability drivers such as the capital investment framework (which made tranches of funding contingent on plans to reduce carbon emissions), the higher education green academy and the student green fund have all been removed. Today, it says, “the landscape looks bereft of any significant support or incentive for sustainable development in universities in England.” “We can now see the concerning impact of the current government’s short-termism with regard to energy and climate policy,” says Hannah Smith, co-director for campaigns and research. “Environmental sustainability has been removed from the government’s annual grant letter setting out higher education funding, leaving the Higher Education Funding Council [Hefce] without the resources it had in the past to support sustainable practice.” Wealth and academic prestige appear to be uncorrelated to progress on sustainability and ethical employment and procurement. The University of Oxford comes 46th and Cambridge 57th. Grant Anderson, Nottingham Trent’s environmental manager, says that in the past, external pressures were useful in engaging senior management in the sustainability drive. “These now don’t exist. However, it hasn’t impeded us. We continue to expand from an initial focus on carbon, waste, transport etc to a more holistic approach, understanding the sustainability opportunities of our core business of education and research. “We made it a formal requirement six months ago that all of our courses incorporate at least one of the 17 UN sustainable development goals. We don’t specify what they include, that is up to the academics, but we think it will give our students an edge in their careers to have considered some of the environmental challenges they will face in their lifetimes. For example, chemistry students are exploring their role in finding solutions to feeding the world in a sustainable way and primary education students learn practical gardening skills at the university’s food share allotments that they will be able to share with their future pupils.” Government policy is likely to continue to have an impact, however – but a less positive one. Abigail Dombey, Brighton’s environmental manager, says the university has recently installed 893 solar panels, which will save £40,000 a year in energy bills and reduce its carbon footprint by more than 100 tonnes a year. “But the feed-in tariffs – the financial incentives for generating electricity from renewable sources – have been slashed by the government so there is much less incentive to invest in renewable energy.” She fears some universities could also face higher taxes under the business rates revaluation from next April through the government’s proposal to increase the rateable value of solar panels. As charities, most universities are exempt from at least 80% of business rates but some pay 20% and all pay rates on buildings used commercially. The bottom 10 in the green league are mostly small, specialist institutions that are less likely to have the resources to employ staff to oversee environmental issues. However, the small specialist Royal Agricultural University, at 16th in the league, shows that a lot can be achieved on a smaller scale. St Mary’s University in Twickenham, London, with 4,400 students, came in the bottom 10 after researchers found it had no environmental policy or strategy, no publicly available carbon management plan, ethical investment policy or evidence of dedicated sustainability staff. In response, a spokesman said the findings were “not reflective of St Mary’s approach to sustainability” and that “the university has extensive environmental policies including strategies for carbon management, biodiversity and sustainable catering”. Hefce says its capital investment framework remains in force and requires universities and colleges to “demonstrate that their capital investment plans are aligned with the goal of managing environmental impact and that they have an acceptable carbon management plan in place”. It adds: “The HE sector has developed its expertise significantly over the last decade or so and they are the real experts in what the sector needs to do to drive sustainability plans forward.” Top 20 1 Nottingham Trent University 2 University of Brighton 3 Manchester Metropolitan University 4 Cardiff Metropolitan University 5 University of Worcester 6 Aston University 7 City, University of London 8 = Newcastle University 8 = University of Gloucestershire 10 Swansea University 11 University of Bedfordshire 12 Plymouth University 13 De Montfort University 14 London School of Economics 15 Keele University 16= University of Exeter 16= Royal Agricultural University 18 University of Greenwich 19 University of Bradford 20 Bournemouth University Bottom 10 141 Heythrop College, University of London 142 Writtle University College 143 University of St Mark & St John 144 St Mary’s University, Twickenham 145 Royal Northern College of Music 146 University College Birmingham 147 Stranmillis University College 148 University of Bolton 149 Royal Veterinary College 150 Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance • For the full league table go to peopleand • This article was amended on 22 November 2016 to correct the rankings for four universities in the top 20, and to put Bournemouth University at No 20 rather than Coventry University. The article was also amended to correct a reference to the Royal Agricultural College; it has been the Royal Agricultural University since 2013.

Dairy cows are high value farm animals requiring careful management to achieve the best results. Since the advent of robotic and high throughput milking, the traditional few minutes available for individual human attention daily has disappeared and new automated technologies have been applied to improve monitoring of dairy cow production, nutrition, fertility, health and welfare. Cows milked by robots must meet legal requirements to detect healthy milk. This review focuses on emerging technical approaches in those areas of high cost to the farmer (fertility, metabolic disorders, mastitis, lameness and calving). The availability of low cost tri-axial accelerometers and wireless telemetry has allowed accurate models of behaviour to be developed and sometimes combined with rumination activity detected by acoustic sensors to detect oestrus; other measures (milk and skin temperature, electronic noses, milk yield) have been abandoned. In-line biosensors have been developed to detect markers for ovulation, pregnancy, lactose, mastitis and metabolic changes. Wireless telemetry has been applied to develop boluses for monitoring the rumen pH and temperature to detect metabolic disorders. Udder health requires a multisensing approach due to the varying inflammatory responses collectively described as mastitis. Lameness can be detected by walk over weigh cells, but also by various types of video image analysis and speed measurement. Prediction and detection of calving time is an area of active research mostly focused on behavioural change. © The Animal Consortium 2015 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Zubr J.,Royal Agricultural University
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2010

Purpose: Production of oil from Camelina sativa seed (CS) by pressing yields a by-product in the form of press cakes (PC). The PC were traditionally used as ingredient in fodder for animals. This paper aims to estimate the nutritional value of CS and PC with regard to exploitation in human nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Seed samples for analyses were collected from remote locations in Europe and in Scandinavia. The analyses of CS for the content of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals were carried out using advanced analytical technology. With few exceptions, standard analytical methods were used. Findings: The analyses quantified the content of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals of CS. The mean content of glucose was 0.42 per cent, fructose 0.04 per cent, sucrose 5.5 per cent, raffinose 0.64 per cent, stachyose 0.36 per cent, starch 1.21 per cent, pectin 0.96 per cent, mucilage 6.7 per cent, crude fibre 12.8 per cent and lignin was 7.4 per cent. The analyses for vitamins were restricted to water soluble vitamins of B series. The content of thiamin (B1) was 18.8 μg/g, riboflavin (B2) 4.4 μg/g, niacin (B3) 194 μg/g, pantothenic acid (B5) 11.3 μg/g, pyridoxine (B6) 1.9 μg/g, biotin (B7) 1.0 μg/g and folate (B9) 3.2 μg/g. Analyses for selected minerals disclosed the content of calcium (Ca) 1.0 per cent, magnesium (Mg) 0.51 per cent, sodium (Na) 0.06 per cent, potassium (K) 1.6 per cent, chlorine (Cl) 0.04 per cent, phosphorus (P) 1.4 per cent, sulphur (S) 0.24 per cent, iron (Fe) 329 μg/g, copper (Cu) 9.9 μg/g, manganese (Mn) 40 μg/g, nickel (Ni) 1.9 μg/g and zinc (Zn) 69 μg/g. Originality/value: The available scientific documentation does not provide information concerning analyses of CS for the content of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The present investigation reveals the quantitative contribution of these substances to the total nutritional value of CS. Chemical characteristics and the role of the respective substances in metabolism are briefly reviewed. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Minaei N.,Royal Agricultural University
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2014

Legibility has long been recognized as an important factor in creating a good image of a city in individuals' minds. This image is perceived to assist people in understanding the city, finding their way, and recalling the city. The quality of the image affects individuals' abilities in way-finding. This is especially important for cosmopolitan and global cities such as London in order to preserve resources and time, manage travel costs, limit pollution (air or noise) and enhance these cities as places to live, work and visit. This research examines the cognitive maps of London drawn by a sample of its residents to discover how different modes of transportation and GPS usage could affect individuals' urban images. Such research is useful for town planners, local government departments, and urban and transport planners because of the way it considers the legibility of London as and provides a tool to study individuals' urban images. 101 participants were recruited with at least a two-year residency from both genders (38.6% females and 61.4% males) with the average age of 33.88 and S.D.=. 10.63. The results suggest car use has a positive correlation with seeing London in city scale and GPS usage has a negative correlation. Whilst recent studies have shown that there are differences between active travel modes (e.g., walking, bicycle riding or driving a car) and passive modes (e.g., as a passenger taking a bus, train or taxi), this study indicates that GPS usage also influences cognitive maps, with a negative correlation found between GPS usage and drawing maps on a city scale. Other significant associations were found for the car drivers with a positive relation with the number of roads mentioned on the maps, seeing London in city scale and having a two-dimensional façade image of the city in mind. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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