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Zubr J.,Royal Agricultural University
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2010

Purpose: Production of oil from Camelina sativa seed (CS) by pressing yields a by-product in the form of press cakes (PC). The PC were traditionally used as ingredient in fodder for animals. This paper aims to estimate the nutritional value of CS and PC with regard to exploitation in human nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Seed samples for analyses were collected from remote locations in Europe and in Scandinavia. The analyses of CS for the content of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals were carried out using advanced analytical technology. With few exceptions, standard analytical methods were used. Findings: The analyses quantified the content of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals of CS. The mean content of glucose was 0.42 per cent, fructose 0.04 per cent, sucrose 5.5 per cent, raffinose 0.64 per cent, stachyose 0.36 per cent, starch 1.21 per cent, pectin 0.96 per cent, mucilage 6.7 per cent, crude fibre 12.8 per cent and lignin was 7.4 per cent. The analyses for vitamins were restricted to water soluble vitamins of B series. The content of thiamin (B1) was 18.8 μg/g, riboflavin (B2) 4.4 μg/g, niacin (B3) 194 μg/g, pantothenic acid (B5) 11.3 μg/g, pyridoxine (B6) 1.9 μg/g, biotin (B7) 1.0 μg/g and folate (B9) 3.2 μg/g. Analyses for selected minerals disclosed the content of calcium (Ca) 1.0 per cent, magnesium (Mg) 0.51 per cent, sodium (Na) 0.06 per cent, potassium (K) 1.6 per cent, chlorine (Cl) 0.04 per cent, phosphorus (P) 1.4 per cent, sulphur (S) 0.24 per cent, iron (Fe) 329 μg/g, copper (Cu) 9.9 μg/g, manganese (Mn) 40 μg/g, nickel (Ni) 1.9 μg/g and zinc (Zn) 69 μg/g. Originality/value: The available scientific documentation does not provide information concerning analyses of CS for the content of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The present investigation reveals the quantitative contribution of these substances to the total nutritional value of CS. Chemical characteristics and the role of the respective substances in metabolism are briefly reviewed. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Nguefack J.,University of Yaounde I | Tamgue O.,University of Yaounde I | Dongmo J.B.L.,University of Yaounde I | Dakole C.D.,University of Yaounde I | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2012

Penicillium expansum is a mould that causes the rotting of several fruits and vegetables, especially apples onto which it also synthesizes some dangerous mycotoxins. The degree of synergism between fractions of essential from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris was evaluated against two mycotoxin producing strains of P. expansum. The antifungal activity determined by dilution method and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu) showed that the essential oils extracted from O. gratissimum was significantly (P < 0.05) more active against P. expansum than those extracted from C. citratus and T. vulgaris. Fractions enriched with oxygenated terpenes were significantly (P < 0.05) more active than their respective essential oils, whereas most of the fractions enriched with terpene hydrocarbons, were significantly (P < 0.05) less active. The fungicidal activity of mixtures of fractions from the same essential oils or from two different essential oils showed that there exist synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects between fractions of the three essential oils tested against both fungal strains. The synergistic effects observed could be exploited in order to maximize the antimicrobial activity of essential oils and to minimize the concentrations of essential oil required to produce a given antimicrobial effect without any alteration of the food test. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Manning L.,Royal Agricultural University
Food Science and Technology (London) | Year: 2014

Interactions between corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies and consumer social responsibility (CNSR) in the supply chain need to be more fully understood if organizations are to maintain or improve their future market share and customer loyalty. The perception of corporate integrity translates into brand value, and a risk to corporate integrity will have a resultant impact on the value of the brand. CSR standards can contain both tangible and intangible benefits for stakeholders. In the CNSR, consumers, through their purchases and consumption of products, are ultimately the final judges of corporations' behavior. CNSR can be a solo, product-centric purchasing decision within the shopping basket. Organizations need to recognize that their CSR activities must remain congruent with CNSR and its impact on buying behavior. If the synergy is lost then it will be difficult to maintain or improve market share and customer Loyalty. Source

Hall S.,University of Stirling | Hopkins D.W.,Royal Agricultural University
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2015

We have compared microbial biomass and respiration rates in soils and decomposition of peat materials from the different components of a raised mire system. The microbial biomass in the lagg fen was not greater than that of the mineral soil or the mire expanse, but the respiration rate of the decomposer organisms in the lagg fen exceeded that of either the mire expanse or surrounding mineral soils. The respiration rate of microorganisms in litter recovered from litter bags in the lagg fen was greater than that in the mire expanse, and the microbial biomass of the litter was greater for the lagg fen than for either the mineral soil or the mire expanse. Further, the litter from minerotrophic plants decomposed faster than the ombrotrophic species. © 2015 Institute of Agricultural and Food Information. All rights reserved. Source

Dairy cows are high value farm animals requiring careful management to achieve the best results. Since the advent of robotic and high throughput milking, the traditional few minutes available for individual human attention daily has disappeared and new automated technologies have been applied to improve monitoring of dairy cow production, nutrition, fertility, health and welfare. Cows milked by robots must meet legal requirements to detect healthy milk. This review focuses on emerging technical approaches in those areas of high cost to the farmer (fertility, metabolic disorders, mastitis, lameness and calving). The availability of low cost tri-axial accelerometers and wireless telemetry has allowed accurate models of behaviour to be developed and sometimes combined with rumination activity detected by acoustic sensors to detect oestrus; other measures (milk and skin temperature, electronic noses, milk yield) have been abandoned. In-line biosensors have been developed to detect markers for ovulation, pregnancy, lactose, mastitis and metabolic changes. Wireless telemetry has been applied to develop boluses for monitoring the rumen pH and temperature to detect metabolic disorders. Udder health requires a multisensing approach due to the varying inflammatory responses collectively described as mastitis. Lameness can be detected by walk over weigh cells, but also by various types of video image analysis and speed measurement. Prediction and detection of calving time is an area of active research mostly focused on behavioural change. © The Animal Consortium 2015 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited Source

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