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Port Adelaide, Australia

Prouse J.,Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Center
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing

A systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of various methods of information given to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy education revealed that psycho-educational interventions minimized the intensity and impact of treatment-related fatigue on daily life in the short term for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Studies that investigated efficacy of interactive multimedia devices revealed no statistical improvement in information recall, quantity of self-care activities, and fatigue levels between groups. Three of the multimedia studies focused on anxiety and depression trends before and during treatment, with mixed results. Several studies revealed no significant difference in either anxiety or depression. Others concluded that patients who viewed video information in conjunction with standard care were less anxious and depressed. Combined, these studies revealed that multimedia devices did not improve recall of information and that psycho-educational interventions were able to improve the impact of treatment-related side effects, namely fatigue, in the short term. This suggests that the educational needs of patients with cancer require a complex series of factors that impact the individual's ability to understand how and when to initiate recommended self-care strategies. Source

Al-Azri A.R.,University of Adelaide | Gibson R.J.,University of Adelaide | Keefe D.M.K.,Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Center | Logan R.M.,University of Adelaide
Oral Diseases

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are critical factors in maintaining the integrity of mucosa and mediating normal biological processes. An imbalance between tissue levels of these mediators and their natural inhibitors is believed to underlie the pathophysiology of many diseases, including those affect the gastrointestinal and oral mucosae. The ongoing development of synthetic inhibitors of these mediators may provide opportunities to develop treatment modalities for patients suffering from these diseases. Understanding the role of MMPs in the pathophysiology of many diseases, however, is far from complete, and the improvement of pharmaceutical management strategies can only be achieved if the underlying process of these diseases is completely comprehended. This paper reviews the functions of matrix metalloproteinases and addresses their role in mediating mucosal pathologies with emphasis on oral mucosa. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Chiam K.,Flinders University | Wang T.,Flinders University | Watson D.I.,Flinders University | Mayne G.C.,Flinders University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

Background: The poor prognosis and rising incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma highlight the need for improved detection methods. The potential for circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers in other cancers has been shown, but circulating miRNAs have not been well characterized in esophageal adenocarcinoma. We investigated whether circulating exosomal miRNAs have potential to discriminate individuals with esophageal adenocarcinoma from healthy controls and non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus. Methods: Seven hundred fifty-eight miRNAs were profiled in serum circulating exosomes from a cohort of 19 healthy controls, 10 individuals with Barrett’s esophagus, and 18 individuals with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma. MiRNA expression was assessed using all possible permutations of miRNA ratios per individual. Four hundred eight miRNA ratios were differentially expressed in individuals with cancer compared to controls and Barrett’s esophagus (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). The 179/408 ratios discriminated esophageal adenocarcinoma from healthy controls and Barrett’s esophagus (linear regression, P < 0.05; area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) > 0.7, P < 0.05). A multi-biomarker panel (RNU6-1/miR-16-5p, miR-25-3p/miR-320a, let-7e-5p/miR-15b-5p, miR-30a-5p/miR-324-5p, miR-17-5p/miR-194-5p) demonstrated enhanced specificity and sensitivity (area under ROC = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.96–1.0) over single miRNA ratios to distinguish esophageal adenocarcinoma from controls and Barrett’s esophagus. Conclusions: This study highlights the potential for serum exosomal miRNAs as biomarkers for the detection of esophageal adenocarcinoma. © 2015, The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. Source

Olver I.N.,Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Center | Dutney A.,Flinders University
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

Context Cochrane reviews have analyzed multiple studies on intercessory prayer that treatment teams had added to health interventions; however, the reviewers could draw no conclusions about the efficacy of prayer because the studies showed either positive or no effects and used different endpoints and methodologies. Objective The study intended to determine whether researchers could measure the impact of intercessory prayer on spiritual well-being. Design The research team conducted a randomized blinded trial of intercessory prayer added to normal cancer treatment with participants agreeing to complete quality of life (QOL) and spiritual well-being scales at baseline and 6 months later. The research team had shown previously that spiritual well-being is an important, unique domain in the assessment of QOL. Participants remained blinded to the randomization. Based on a previous study, the research team determined that the study required a sample of 1000 participants to detect small differences (P =.05, 2-tailed, 80% power). Setting The research team performed this research at the Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Centre, South Australia, Australia. Participants: Participants were patients at the cancer center between June 2003 and May 2008. Of 999 participants with mixed diagnoses who completed the baseline questionnaires, 66.6% provided follow-up. The average age was 61 years, and most participants were married/de facto (living with partners), were Australians or New Zealanders living in Australia, and were Christian. Intervention The research team asked an external group offering Christian intercessory prayer to add the study's participants to their usual prayer lists. They received details about the participants, but this information was not sufficient to identify them. Outcome Measures The research team used the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy- Spiritual Well-being questionnaire to assess spiritual wellbeing and QOL. Results The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements over time for the primary endpoint of spiritual well-being as compared to the control group (P =.03, partial η 2 =.01). The study found a similar result for emotional well-being (P =.04, partial η 2 =.01) and functional well-being (P =.06, partial η 2 =.01). Conclusions Participants with cancer whom the research team randomly allocated to the experimental group to receive remote intercessory prayer showed small but significant improvements in spiritual well-being. Source

Ramm D.,Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Center | Ramm D.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Physics: Conference Series

Ongoing progress on development of an in-air scanning optical CT is reported, specifically dealing with the minimization of scanner imaging artefacts. Improved scratch resistance of the PMMA gel cylinder was a primary goal, so that routine cleaning would not degrade the polished surfaces. This was achieved by the addition of a hard coating to the cylinder surfaces. New artefacts were introduced and subsequently reduced by alternative processing of projection data. The outcome was a gel cylinder of much greater practicality for routine use while maintaining similar signal to noise ratios and uniformity in the image reconstruction field of view. Source

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