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Mohamad T.I.,National University of Malaysia | Harrison M.,Royal Academy of Engineering | Jermy M.,University of Canterbury | How H.G.,National University of Malaysia
Journal of Visualization | Year: 2010

A spark plug fuel injector (SPFI), which is a combination of a fuel injector and a spark plug was developed with the aim to convert any gasoline port injection spark ignition engine to gaseous fuel direct injection (Mohamad in Development of a spark plug fuel injector for direct injection of methane in spark\ ignition engine. PhD thesis, Cranfield University, 2006). A direct fuel injector is combined with a spark plug using specially fabricated bracket connected to a fuel pipe and a fuel path running along the periphery of a spark plug body to deliver the injected fuel to the combustion chamber. The injection nozzle of SPFI is significantly bigger than normal direct fuel injector nozzles. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of such a configuration on the injection process and subsequently the air-fuel mixing behaviour inside the combustion chamber. The flow was visualized using the planar laser-induced fluorescent technique. For safety reasons, nitrogen was used as fuel substitute. Nitrogen at 50, 60 and 80 bar pressure was seeded with acetone as a flow tracer and injected into a bomb containing pressurised nitrogen. Bomb pressure was varied to simulate the pressure inside combustion cylinder during the compression stroke where actual injections in engine experiments will take place. The shape and depth of tip penetration of the gas jet were measured. Results show that the gas jet follows the behaviour suggested by vortex ball model (Turner in Mechanics 13:356-369, 1962). The cone angle and the maximum jet width of the fully developed gas jets from the SPFI injection are 23° and 25 mm, respectively regardless of the injection pressures. The penetration lengths of the fully developed jets are between 90 and 100 mm at 8-14 ms after the start of injection, depending on the bomb and injection pressure. Jet penetration is directly proportional to the injection pressure but inversely proportional to the cylinder or bomb pressure. The penetration lengths indicate that sufficient distance should be travelled by the gas jet for satisfactory air-fuel mixing in the engine. © The Visualization Society of Japan 2009. Source

Mohamad T.I.,National University of Malaysia | Jermy M.,University of Canterbury | Harrison M.,Royal Academy of Engineering
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

Power reduction when converting a gasoline engine to propane can be mitigated by designing an injection system so the heat required for evaporation of the propane is drawn from the intake air. Air is cooled and densified, resulting in volumetric efficiency increase. LPG sprays were imaged using Mie and LIF imaging techniques from a port fuel injector, and from long and short connecting pipes. Images were taken in an optically-accessed pressure chamber at atmospheric pressure and fuel pressures of 1.5 MPa. Images of the pipe-coupled injection spray show significant evaporation in the pipe, whose amount depend on the length and diameter of the pipe. The duration of the LPG pulse at the manifold end is, for 300mm pipes, five times the original duration at the injector, and even greater for 600mm pipes. The narrow sprays and the amount of evaporation that occurs before the fuel enters the manifold explains the differences in engine torque and in-cylinder mixture temperature with the different systems. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

Donofrio N.,IBM | Donofrio N.,Royal Academy of Engineering
Research Technology Management | Year: 2010

OVERVIEW: In the new economy, the playing field is flatter and faster. Success in any field - in industry, in education, in politics - now requires actively seeking out change and embracing it. Successful leaders in today's world know that change is always coming, so they don't wait for it. They look for it and capitalize on it. © 2010 Industrial Research Institute, Inc. Source

Le C.V.,University of Sheffield | Nguyen-Xuan H.,University of science | Askes H.,University of Sheffield | Bordas S.P.A.,University of Cardiff | And 3 more authors.
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper presents a new numerical procedure for kinematic limit analysis problems, which incorporates the cell-based smoothed finite element method with second-order cone programming. The application of a strain smoothing technique to the standard displacement finite element both rules out volumetric locking and also results in an efficient method that can provide accurate solutions with minimal computational effort. The non-smooth optimization problem is formulated as a problem of minimizing a sum of Euclidean norms, ensuring that the resulting optimization problem can be solved by an efficient second-order cone programming algorithm. Plane stress and plane strain problems governed by the von Mises criterion are considered, but extensions to problems with other yield criteria having a similar conic quadratic form or 3D problems can be envisaged. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Hawthorne H.,Royal Academy of Engineering | Epson R.,UKRC for Women in SET
Engineering Education 2010: Inspiring the Next Generation of Engineers, EE 2010 | Year: 2010

This workshop is intended to engage engineering lecturers, colleagues from widening participation units within universities who are currently running engineering outreach activities or public engagement programmes and/or faculty management within the home institution, in a discussion around the issues of attracting girls and women into engineering. The session would also be relevant for engineering postgraduates and undergraduate students involved in engineering outreach or public engagement. During the session we will explore these issues, as well as address peoples concerns about working in this area. The London Engineering Project (LEP) team in partnership with the UKRC for Women in SET developed training approaches to help colleagues working on the project to understand the issues around gender awareness in engineering and developed training for the different audiences involved in the project. This included training for LEP fieldworkers, engineering lecturers, practising engineers (STEM ambassadors) as well as student ambassadors. During the session we will share with you some of the approaches that we developed to help explore the areas for discussion. Colleagues who attend this workshop will be encouraged share their own experiences and successes, learn from our mistakes and successes as well as explore the issues around getting girls into engineering and women onto their own engineering degree courses. © 2010 Heather Hawthorne and Rachel Epson. Source

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