Whybrow S.,Rowett Research Institute |
Whybrow S.,University of Surrey |
Ritz P.,Toulouse University Hospital Center |
Horgan G.W.,Rowett Research Institute |
James Stubbs R.,Slimming World
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013
Objective estimates of activity patterns and energy expenditure (EE) are important for the measurement of energy balance. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) can estimate EE from the thirty-five postures and activities it can identify and record. The present study evaluated the IDEEA system's estimation of EE using whole-body indirect calorimetry over 24 h, and in free-living subjects using doubly-labelled water (DLW) over 14 d. EE was calculated from the IDEEA data using calibration values for RMR and EE while sitting and standing, both as estimated by the IDEEA system (IDEEAest) and measured by indirect calorimetry (IDEEAmeas). Subjects were seven females and seven males, mean age 38·1 and 39·7 years, mean BMI 25·2 and 26·2 kg/m2, respectively. The IDEEAest method produced a similar estimate of EE to the calorimeter (10·8 and 10·8 MJ, NS), while the IDEEAmeas method underestimated EE (9·9 MJ, P < 0·001). After removing data from static cycling, which the IDEEA was unable to identify as an activity, both the IDEEAest and IDEEAmeas methods overestimated EE compared to the calorimeter (9·9 MJ, P < 0·001; 9·1 MJ, P < 0·05 and 8·6 MJ, respectively). Similarly, the IDEEA system overestimated EE compared to DLW over 14 d; 12·7 MJ/d (P < 0·01), 11·5 MJ/d (P < 0·01) and 9·5 MJ/d for the IDEEAest, IDEEAmeas and DLW, respectively. The IDEEA system overestimated EE both in the controlled laboratory and free-living environments. Using measured EE values for RMR, sitting and standing reduced, but did not eliminate, the error in estimated EE. © 2012 The Authors.
Chassard C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Dapoigny M.,Hotel Dieu Hospital |
Scott K.P.,Rowett Research Institute |
Crouzet L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 9 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012
Background The role of the gut microbiota in patho-physiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is suggested by several studies. However, standard cultural and molecular methods used to date have not revealed specific and consistent IBS-related groups of microbes. Aim To explore the constipated-IBS (C-IBS) gut microbiota using a function-based approach. Methods The faecal microbiota from 14 C-IBS women and 12 sex-match healthy subjects were examined through a combined strictly anaerobic cultural evaluation of functional groups of microbes and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (16S rDNA gene targeting probes) to quantify main groups of bacteria. Starch fermentation by C-IBS and healthy faecal samples was evaluated in vitro. Results In C-IBS, the numbers of lactate-producing and lactate-utilising bacteria and the number of H 2-consuming populations, methanogens and reductive acetogens, were at least 10-fold lower (P < 0.05) compared with control subjects. Concomitantly, the number of lactate- and H 2-utilising sulphate-reducing population was 10 to 100 fold increased in C-IBS compared with healthy subjects. The butyrate-producing Roseburia - E. rectale group was in lower number (0.01 < P < 0.05) in C-IBS than in control. C-IBS faecal microbiota produced more sulphides and H 2 and less butyrate from starch fermentation than healthy ones. Conclusions A major functional dysbiosis was observed in constipated-irritable bowel syndrome gut microbiota, reflecting altered intestinal fermentation. Sulphate-reducing population increased in the gut of C-IBS and were accompanied by alterations in other microbial groups. This could be responsible for changes in the metabolic output and enhancement in toxic sulphide production which could in turn influence gut physiology and contribute to IBS pathogenesis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Minas K.,Robert Gordon University |
Mcewan N.R.,Aberystwyth University |
Newbold C.J.,Aberystwyth University |
Scott K.P.,Rowett Research Institute
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2011
The quality and yield of extracted DNA are critical for the majority of downstream applications in molecular biology. Moreover, molecular techniques such as quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) are becoming increasingly widespread; thus, validation and cross-laboratory comparison of data require standardization of upstream experimental procedures. DNA extraction methods depend on the type and size of starting material(s) used. As such, the extraction of template DNA is arguably the most significant variable when cross-comparing data from different laboratories. Here, we describe a reliable, inexpensive and rapid method of DNA purification that is equally applicable to small or large scale or high-throughput purification of DNA. The protocol relies on a CTAB-based buffer for cell lysis and further purification of DNA with phenol : chloroform : isoamyl alcohol. The protocol has been used successfully for DNA purification from rumen fluid and plant cells. Moreover, after slight alterations, the same protocol was used for large-scale extraction of DNA from pure cultures of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The yield of the DNA obtained with this method exceeded that from the same samples using commercial kits, and the quality was confirmed by successful qPCR applications. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tups A.,University of Marburg |
Stohr S.,University of Marburg |
Helwig M.,University of Maryland Baltimore County |
Barrett P.,Rowett Research Institute |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology | Year: 2012
The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, undergoes a striking seasonal cycle of leptin sensitivity and body weight regulation, but the molecular mechanism and relevance to human leptin insensitivity are unknown. Here we show that nuclear translocation of phospho-STAT3 in the hypothalamus is rapidly stimulated by leptin to a greater extent in hamsters held in short-day length (SD) as compared to long-day length (LD). Intriguingly, effects of leptin on STAT3 appeared to be in part limited to nuclear translocation of phospho-STAT3 associated with the cell surface rather than phosphorylation of STAT3. The number of phospho-ERK cells within the hypothalamus was unaffected by either photoperiod or leptin. However, proximal to ERK phosphorylation, hypothalamic SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) and the small growth factor receptor-binding protein (GRB2), which act as competitive negative modulators on binding of SOCS3 to leptin receptor (LRb)-associated Tyr 985, were increased in SD compared to LD. Our findings suggest that activation of STAT3 by leptin may be dependent on interaction of stimulatory SHP2/GRB2 as well as inhibitory SOCS3 on the level of competitive binding to LRb-associated Tyr 985. This hypothetical mechanism may represent the molecular identity of seasonally induced adjustments in leptin sensitivity and may be applied to investigating leptin sensitivity in other rodent models. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Stubbs R.J.,Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health |
Stubbs R.J.,University of Derby |
O'Reilly L.M.,Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health |
Whybrow S.,University of Aberdeen |
And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014
To date, no study has directly and simultaneously measured the discrepancy between what people actually eat and what they report eating under observation in the context of energy balance (EB). The present study aimed to objectively measure the 'extent' and 'nature' of misreporting of dietary intakes under conditions in which EB and feeding behaviour were continuously monitored. For this purpose, a total of fifty-nine adults were recruited for 12 d, involving two 3 d overt phases and two 3 d covert phases of food intake measurement in a randomised cross-over design. Subjects had ad libitum access to a variety of familiar foods. Food intake was covertly measured using a feeding behaviour suite to establish actual energy and nutrient intakes. During the overt phases, subjects were instructed to self-report food intake using widely accepted methods. Misreporting comprised two separate and synchronous phenomena. Subjects decreased energy intake (EI) when asked to record their food intake (observation effect). The effect was significant in women ( - 8 %, P< 0·001) but not in men ( - 3 %, P< 0·277). The reported EI was 5 to 21 % lower (reporting effect) than the actual intake, depending on the reporting method used. Semi-quantitative techniques gave larger discrepancies. These discrepancies were identical in men and women and non-macronutrient specific. The 'observation' and 'reporting' effects combined to constitute total misreporting, which ranged from 10 to 25 %, depending on the intake measurement assessed. When studied in a laboratory environment and EB was closely monitored, subjects under-reported their food intake and decreased the actual intake when they were aware that their intake was being monitored. © The Authors 2014.
Orskov E.R.,Rowett Research Institute |
Fraser C.,Rowett Research Institute |
Mcdonald I.,Rowett Research Institute |
Smart R.I.,Rowett Research Institute
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011
1. In one experiment according to a latin square design five sheep with fistulas in the abomasum and terminal ileum were given diets based on barley. Five diets were compared, one without protein supplementation, two with different levels of fish meal and two with combinations of fish meal and urea. 2. The amount of non-ammonia crude protein passing through the abomasum and removed from the small intestine increased linearly with fish-meal supplementation but the only effect of supplementation with urea was to increase the crude protein removed before the abomasum. It was concluded that urea did not appear to have a sparing effect on the degradation of dietary protein. 3. Seventy-eight lambs were used in a second experiment. They were given thirteen diets made up from a basal barley diet and different combinations of fish meal and urea. 4. Digestibility of organic matter and efficiency of food conversion increased with each level of fish-meal supplementation. The effects of urea supplementation on organic matter digestibility and efficiency of food conversion depended upon the level of fish meal in the diet and at the highest level of fish-meal supplementation there were no effects. 5. The maximum digestibility of organic matter (about 820 g/kg) could be achieved both with urea alone and fish meal alone and was attained at a lower level of nitrogen in the diet with urea. In contrast, the maximum food conversion efficiency that could be achieved with a fish-meal supplement was much greater than could be obtained with a supplement of urea alone. © 1974, The Nutrition Society. All rights reserved.
Ribeiro K.M.,Federal University of Lavras |
Braga R.A.,Federal University of Lavras |
Scalco M.S.,Federal University of Lavras |
Horgan G.W.,Rowett Research Institute
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2013
The total leaf area (TLA) estimation is an important feature of the crops and their assessment a challenge, since the direct methods of obtaining it are destructive and time consuming. Non-destructive methods have been explored to obtain the TLA by indirect approaches, in turn creating other features, as the leaf area index. The development of non-destructive technology to access the TLA of a plant has been the subject of much research, and the optical metrology is an promising approach. In this work, some indirect methods associated with optical approaches were evaluated as an alternative to obtain the TLA of the coffee plant. Commercial equipment were used, such as a camera with a fish eye lens and lux meters, associated to the sizes of the canopies were tested and compared to another non-destructive method and with methods proposed in the literature. The association between production and the TLA estimated was also evaluated. The results showed that the commercial equipment, generally used in forestry, was not the best approach in coffee plants, and that the methods related to the size and lux values of the plants were the best alternatives to estimate the TLA of the coffee plant.
Marcon M.,Federal University of Lavras |
Mariano K.,Federal University of Lavras |
Braga R.A.,Federal University of Lavras |
Paglis C.M.,Federal University of Lavras |
And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2011
One feature of most horticultural crop plants that is biologically relevant to their yield and productivity is total leaf area. However, direct methods of estimation of the leaf area cause damage to the plants, whereas indirect methods such as based on light measurement, demand accuracy in the setup of the measurement procedure, which is specific to each crop. Coffee is one of the most important perennial plants related to worldwide trade, and this demands some ability to estimate the productivity of the crop, as well as all the perennial plants involved in production of agricultural products. This study aims to build a model based on indirect measures to estimate the leaf area in coffee plants using image analysis. Two models were evaluated, one based on the height and width of the canopies, and other based on the area of the digital image of a tree. The results of the models have been compared with the real area of the leaves using the destructive approach with measurement of area of all the leaves using a digital scanner. Comparisons between the models and the real values indicated values of adjusted R 2 of about 0.82 with a model using the height and the width values, and about 0.91 in the second model which used the area projection. The robustness of the model using the height and the width values were tested using data presented in the literature to other cultivars and achieved R 2 = 0.54 with an outlier point and 0.91 without it.
Derakhshanian H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Shab-Bidar S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Speakman J.R.,Rowett Research Institute |
Nadimi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Djafarian K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Nutrition | Year: 2015
Objective: There has been a long history documenting the use of different vitamin D derivatives as therapy for renal diseases. However, to our knowledge, there is no comprehensive assessment of the relation between vitamin D deficiency and risk for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Additionally, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on DN is still unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess these issues by pooling together the results from cross-sectional studies and clinical trials. Methods: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar was conducted, ending in September 2014. For cross-sectional studies, odds ratio was used as a measure of the association between vitamin D status and risk for DN; for clinical trials, mean and SD of the main outcome (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR]) in intervention and placebo groups were considered for analysis. Results: The final selected articles were published between 2009 and 2014. In all, 3700 and 219 patients were enrolled in observational and interventional studies, respectively. The pooled odds ratio from six cross-sectional studies was 1.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.59; P = 0.002), indicating a significant inverse association between serum vitamin D status and risk for nephropathy in patients with diabetes. However, the pooled data of UACR levels in clinical trials suggested no significant change following vitamin D supplementation (17.98; 95% CI, -35.35 to 71.32; P = 0.51). Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed the higher risk for nephropathy in vitamin D-deficient patients with diabetes. Pooling the results of available clinical trials after vitamin D supplementation did not support causality in this association. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
PubMed | Rowett Research Institute and Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) | Year: 2015
There has been a long history documenting the use of different vitamin D derivatives as therapy for renal diseases. However, to our knowledge, there is no comprehensive assessment of the relation between vitamin D deficiency and risk for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Additionally, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on DN is still unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess these issues by pooling together the results from cross-sectional studies and clinical trials.A systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar was conducted, ending in September 2014. For cross-sectional studies, odds ratio was used as a measure of the association between vitamin D status and risk for DN; for clinical trials, mean and SD of the main outcome (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR]) in intervention and placebo groups were considered for analysis.The final selected articles were published between 2009 and 2014. In all, 3700 and 219 patients were enrolled in observational and interventional studies, respectively. The pooled odds ratio from six cross-sectional studies was 1.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.59; P = 0.002), indicating a significant inverse association between serum vitamin D status and risk for nephropathy in patients with diabetes. However, the pooled data of UACR levels in clinical trials suggested no significant change following vitamin D supplementation (17.98; 95% CI, -35.35 to 71.32; P = 0.51).This meta-analysis showed the higher risk for nephropathy in vitamin D-deficient patients with diabetes. Pooling the results of available clinical trials after vitamin D supplementation did not support causality in this association.