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Glassboro, NJ, United States

Rowan University is a public university in Glassboro, New Jersey, USA with a satellite campus in Camden, New Jersey. The school was founded in 1923 as Glassboro Normal School on a twenty-five acre site donated by the town. The school became New Jersey State Teachers College at Glassboro in the 1930s, and Glassboro State College in 1958. Starting in the 1970s, it grew into a multi-purpose institution, adding programs in business, communications, and engineering.It was renamed Rowan College of New Jersey in 1992, after Henry Rowan and his wife Betty gave the school $100 million, at the time the largest gift to a public college. It became Rowan University on March 21, 1997, when it won approval for university status from the New Jersey Commission on Higher Education. In the fall of 2012, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University opened in Camden; it was the first public medical school in New Jersey not associated with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. It later acquired the School of Osteopathic Medicine on July 1, 2013 and became only the second university in the United States to offer both an M.D. and a D.O. program. Wikipedia.

Rajaram S.S.,Rowan University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

Since pulmonary artery balloon flotation catheterization was first introduced in 1970, by HJ Swan and W Ganz, it has been widely disseminated as a diagnostic tool without rigorous evaluation of its clinical utility and effectiveness in critically ill patients. A pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is inserted through a central venous access into the right side of the heart and floated into the pulmonary artery. PAC is used to measure stroke volume, cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation and intracardiac pressures with a variety of additional calculated variables to guide diagnosis and treatment. Complications of the procedure are mainly related to line insertion. Relatively uncommon complications include cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary haemorrhage and infarct, and associated mortality from balloon tip rupture. To provide an up-to-date assessment of the effectiveness of a PAC on mortality, length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital and cost of care in adult intensive care patients. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12); MEDLINE (1954 to January 2012); EMBASE (1980 to January 2012); CINAHL (1982 to January 2012), and reference lists of articles. We contacted researchers in the field. We did a grey literature search for articles published until January 2012. We included all randomized controlled trials conducted in adults ICUs, comparing management with and without a PAC. We screened the titles and abstracts and then the full text reports identified from our electronic search. Two authors (SR and MG) independently reviewed the titles, abstracts and then the full text reports for inclusion. We determined the final list of included studies by discussion among the group members (SR, ND, MG, AK and SC) with consensus agreement. We included all the studies that were in the original review. We assessed seven domains of potential risk of bias for the included studies. We examined the clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity and used random-effects model for meta-analysis. We calculated risk ratio for mortality across studies and mean days for LOS. We included 13 studies (5686 patients). We judged blinding of participants and personnel and blinding of outcome assessment to be at high risk in about 50% of the included studies and at low risk in 25% to 30% of the studies. Regardless of the high risk of performance bias these studies were included based on the low weight the studies had in the meta-analysis. We rated 75% of the studies as low risk for selection, attrition and reporting bias. All 13 studies reported some type of hospital mortality (28-day, 30-day, 60-day or ICU mortality). We considered studies of high-risk surgery patients (eight studies) and general intensive care patients (five studies) separately as subgroups for meta-analysis. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for mortality for the studies of general intensive care patients was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.09) and for the studies of high-risk surgery patients the RR was 0.98 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.29). Of the eight studies of high-risk surgery patients, five evaluated the effectiveness of pre-operative optimization but there was no difference in mortality when these studies were examined separately. PAC did not affect general ICU LOS (reported by four studies) or hospital LOS (reported by nine studies). Four studies, conducted in the United States (US), reported costs based on hospital charges billed, which on average were higher in the PAC groups. Two of these studies qualified for analysis and did not show a statistically significant hospital cost difference (mean difference USD 900, 95% CI -2620 to 4420, P = 0.62). PAC is a diagnostic and haemodynamic monitoring tool but not a therapeutic intervention. Our review concluded that use of a PAC did not alter the mortality, general ICU or hospital LOS, or cost for adult patients in intensive care. The quality of evidence was high for mortality and LOS but low for cost analysis. Efficacy studies are needed to determine if there are optimal PAC-guided management protocols, which when applied to specific patient groups in ICUs could result in benefits such as shock reversal, improved organ function and less vasopressor use. Newer, less-invasive haemodynamic monitoring tools need to be validated against PAC prior to clinical use in critically ill patients.

Schnur R.E.,Rowan University
Current Opinion in Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on the recent clinical insights into type I neurofibromatosis (NF1), the most common geno-oculo-dermatosis. Advances in the treatment will also be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: NF1 shares phenotypic features with disorders such as Legius syndrome, type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2), and multiple lentigenes syndrome. Molecular diagnostic testing aids in diagnosing young children with still-evolving clinical signs and distinguishes NF1 from these other conditions. The management of optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) remains controversial. OPGs may enlarge in later childhood and beyond such that longer ocular surveillance may be appropriate. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness inversely correlates with OPGs and decreased vision. There is suspected correlation of cerebral arteriopathy risk with the presence of OPGs. Ciliary body cysts and retinal pigmentary abnormalities may also be markers of NF1. Studies continue to confirm the utility of Lisch nodules as a diagnostic marker in older children and adults and seem to correlate with underlying iris pigmentation and sunlight exposure. Promising therapies are being developed based on NF1's central role in the RAS/RHEB/mTOR signal transduction pathway. SUMMARY: Continuing advances are enhancing the diagnosis and management of NF1. Current clinical trials use agents that target the RAS/mTOR signal transduction pathway and alter microenvironmental factors that contribute to tumor progression. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health.

Ellis R.E.,Rowan University | Stanfield G.M.,University of Utah
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2014

In the nematode C. elegans, both males and self-fertile hermaphrodites produce sperm. As a result, researchers have been able to use a broad range of genetic and genomic techniques to dissect all aspects of sperm development and function. Their results show that the early stages of spermatogenesis are controlled by transcriptional and translational processes, but later stages are dominated by protein kinases and phosphatases. Once spermatids are produced, they participate in many interactions with other cells - signals from the somatic gonad determine when sperm activate and begin to crawl, signals from the female reproductive tissues guide the sperm, and signals from sperm stimulate oocytes to mature and be ovulated. The sperm also show strong competitive interactions with other sperm and oocytes. Some of the molecules that mediate these processes have conserved functions in animal sperm, others are conserved proteins that have been adapted for new roles in nematode sperm, and some are novel proteins that provide insights into evolutionary change. The advent of new techniques should keep this system on the cutting edge of research in cellular and reproductive biology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

The role of glycosylation in the function of the T2 family of RNases is not well understood. In this work, we examined how glycosylation affects the progression of the T2 RNase Rny1p through the secretory pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that Rny1p requires entering into the ER first to become active and uses the adaptor protein Erv29p for packaging into COPII vesicles and transport to the Golgi apparatus. While inside the ER, Rny1p undergoes initial N-linked core glycosylation at four sites, N37, N70, N103 and N123. Rny1p transport to the Golgi results in the further attachment of high-glycans. Whereas modifications with glycans are dispensable for the nucleolytic activity of Rny1p, Golgi-mediated modifications are critical for its extracellular secretion. Failure of Golgi-specific glycosylation appears to direct Rny1p to the vacuole as an alternative destination and/or site of terminal degradation. These data reveal a previously unknown function of Golgi glycosylation in a T2 RNase as a sorting and secretion signal. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Tobe E.H.,Rowan University
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2013

There is controversy about depression being a physical illness, in part because a reproducible, sensitive, and specific biologic marker is not available. However, there is evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress may be associated with abnormal brain function and mood disorders, such as depression. This paper reviews selected human and animal studies providing evidence that intracellular mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction in specific brain regions is associated with major depressive disorder. This supports the hypothesis that chronic mitochondrial dysfunction in specific tissues may be associated with depression. Evaluation of mitochondrial dysfunction in specific tissues may broaden the perspective of depression beyond theories about neurotransmitters or receptor sites, and may explain the persistent signs and symptoms of depression. © 2013 Tobe, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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